Effect of Extracts From Two Artemisia Species: Artemisia afra and Artemisia Rehan on Isolated Smooth Muscle Tissues in Vitro

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Addis Ababa University


Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of dried leaf and root of Artemisia crlm and Artemisia rehall were tested on isolated mouse duodenum, guinea pig ileum and mouse uterine strips ill vitro. The potential spasmolytic (relaxant) and spasmogenic (contractile) effect of the plants were studied in these smooth muscle tissue preparations. Different concentrations of each extract of the plants (ranging from 20-200 ~g/ml) were tried out in the presence of agonist controls, ACh (in MD and MU) and histamine (in GPI) as contraction stimulators. A positive antagonist control, papaverine was used as a smooth muscle relaxant in GPI. In most of the ethanolic extracts, there were significant dose-dependent reductions of ACh and histamineinduced contractions in both tissues (P < 0.05). Both spontaneous rhythmic and agonistinduced contractions of lvID and GPI were greatly reduced by ALE (56% and 35% respectively) and RLE (65% and 56% respectively) at maximal dosages, which suggests spasmolytic property ofthe crude extracts. All the extracts (200 ~lg/ml) except ALE and RLE were less potent than papaverine (I.5 ~lg/ml) in the experiment of GPI. Neither the aqueous nor ethanol extracts of the two plant species caused significant contractile or relaxant effects on MU. All in all, the results in the present study pinpoint that the plants may possess spasmolytic as well as spasmogenic propelties based upon the appropriate use of extractive solvent. The results also support the traditional folk use of the aerial and root parts of the plants more often for stomach pains and intestinal cramps than for fertility control purposes.