Predictors of Breast Self-Examination among Female Secondary School Teachers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia using the Health Belief Model

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Addis Ababa Universty


Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed reproductive organ cancers (ROCs) among women in Ethiopia. Even though breast self-examination (BSE) is shown to be the least expensive, less time consuming and noninvasive screening method, various studies conducted in Ethiopia showed that the practice of breast self-examination is poor. Women‟s perception to breast cancer and BSE, which is considered as an important influencing factor in determining the likelihood of performing BSE, have not received enough attention particularly among female teachers. Therefore this study examined the predictors of BSE among female secondary school teachers based on the health belief model (HBM). Method: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted among female secondary school teachers in Addis Ababa, from March to April 2018. Structured self-administered questionnaire based on the revised champions health belief model instrument (RCHBM) was used for data collection. Sample size was 589 and teachers were selected randomly from thirty four public secondary schools after proportionally allocating to each school. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 for descriptive and logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with BSE performance with corresponding 95% confidence interval. Result: a total of 566 female teachers participated in this study with 96.1% response rate. Majority of respondents 430(76%) have ever heard about BSE. More than half of the participants 56.4% reported that they never performed BSE. After controlling possible confounding variables in the multivariable logistic regression, personal history of breast problem, teaching experience, knowledge and perceived self-efficacy were significantly associated with performing BSE. Conclusion and recommendation: The practice of breast self-examination was discovered to be relatively low. Perceived self-efficacy, personal history of breast problem, teaching experience and knowledge were significant predictors of BSE performance. This emphasizes the need for designing and implementing well-designed school based education programs to improve their awareness that underline the necessity of early screening and enhancing their self-efficacy through demonstration of correct procedures on performing breast self-examination.



breast self-examination, female teachers, Ethiopia, health belief model