Practices and Challenges of “O-class” Program in Public Primary Schools: The Case of East Shoa Zone

No Thumbnail Available



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Addis Ababa University


The purpose of this study was to assess the practices and challenges of “O class” program in public primary schools in East Shoa Zone in terms of curriculum, qualification and training of teachers, favorable learning environment and fulfillment of necessary learning aids. To address this purpose, data were collected from 3 Woredas selected through cluster sampling method. Out of 164 government primary schools in rural areas of these three selected Woredas 33 schools were selected using simple random sampling. By using availability sampling method, 33 “O-class” teachers, 33 school principals and 5 education experts; totally 71 participants have participated in the study. Descriptive data analysis method has been used to analyze data gathered through questionnaires, interviews, document analysis and observations. Unavailability of curriculum and guideline, lack of professionally qualified and trained teachers, unfavorable learning environment and lack of necessary learning aids were found among the challenges encountering the effective implementation of the program. It was due to less attention and emphasis given for the education of the level that plays an important role in the formation of children’s identity and to prepare them for future stages of their education and development. In order to benefit the children of the level and education system at large, Early Childhood Care and Education in general and “O-class” program in particular is the scientific, economic and right thing to do.



Practices and Challenges of “O-class”