The Effect of Chronic Treatment of the Ethanolic Fruit Extract of Embelia Schimperi on Blood Parameters, and Liver and Kidney of Rats

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Addis Abeba University


Embelia schimperi is a plant traditionally used for its medicinal value in many parts of the world including Ethiopia. There are several reports about the pharmacological properties of Embelia schimperi such as ethno-anthelminthics, and antibacterials. However, there are limited published reports about the possible toxicological effects of this plant especially long-term (chronic) toxicity. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic treatment of ethanolic extract of dried fruit of Embelia schimperi in rat models. Methods: The fruits of the plant were collected from Bahir Dar area; Ethiopia, dried, crushed into powder and soaked in 80% ethanol. The filtrate from each soaking was defatted and concentrated by a vacuum rotary evaporator to remove the solvents. The sample was set on a water bath of temperature 40oc to remove the remaining solvent (water). The final dried mass was weighed, packed in plastic cup and kept at -4oc until used. The extract was then orally administered to rats at doses of 400 and 1600mg/kg bwt/day for 24 weeks. Initial and final body weights and absolute weight of liver and kidney were recorded. Blood samples were collected for the analysis of hematological and biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and dissected carefully to collect the liver and kidney for histopathological studies. Results: Ethanolic fruit extract of Embelia schimperi at doses of 400 & 1600 mg/kg bwt/day was not significantly associated with body weight change and relative organ weights of liver and kidney. From hematological and biochemical parameters, only platelets and AST concentration were significantly associated with fruit extract. The histopathological findings showed liver and kidney tissue inflammations among study groups. However, considerable inflammatory cells were observed in kidney sections of rats treated with 1600 mg/kg bwt/day as compared to the controls. Conclusion: Chronic treatment with ethanolic fruit extracts of Embelia schimperi in rats has not shown toxicity though there is significant change in platelets count and AST concentration. However, plant extract might have mild toxicity as indicated by inflammatory cells observed in kidney sections of rats. Key words: Embelia schimperi, Fruit, Ethanolic extract, Chronic Toxicity, Rats.



Embelia Schimperi; Fruit, Ethanolic Extract; Chronic Toxicity; Rats.