Assessment of prevalence and determinants of needle stick injuries among health professionals in Addis Ababa Public Hospital

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Addis Abeba Universty


Back ground Needle Stick Injuries resulted from accidental piercing of the skin and/ or muco-cutaneous mem-branes of health profession. It also caused from suturing needles and other sharps used during clinical care. It is an occupational hazard in health care sector. Needle stick injuries expose health care workers to blood and body fluids which may be infected and can be transmited to them. Unsafe injections and procedures, injection over usage, difficult working condition harm-ing and inviting risks to the health care workers. Adequate knowledge and adherence to safety of practices could prevent the occurrence of NSI and related consequences. Objective To assess the prevalence and determinants of needle stick injuries among health professionals in Addis Ababa in selected Public Hospitals. Method A cross-sectional quantitative survey was used. The actual sample size for the study was deter-mined using the formula for single population proportion. A self administered questioner was distributed among health workers in selected hospitals. Data was collected from April to March 2015. The data collected in questionnaire was physically checked and entered in Epi Info version 3.5.3 and transferred to SPSS version 21. The data were analyzed by summarizing, tabulating and presenting in various formats. Result A total of 257 questionnaires were returned giving a response rate of 86.5%. The majority of health professionals by age were between 25 – 30yrs; 138 (53.7%), nurses 150 (58.4%) followed by laboratory staffs 23 %,( 59); the distribution was predominantly females (176) 58%. Most of them (105) 40.9 %,() have 1 to 5 service years. Ninety six 96 (37.4%), had sustained needle stick injury during the one year prior the survey, of which 31(12.1%) admitted experiencing at least one needle stick injury in previous one month. This means that ONE THIRD of health profes-sionals working in public Hospital in Addis Ababa had get injury to NSI in one year duration. 72.4% of the health professionals did recapping, furthermore 38.6% made recapping by two viii hands. Only 29.2% (75) had training on safety injection 90.6% of needle stick cases were got accident secondary to unsafe clinical practices. Independent risk factors for experiencing needle stick injuries including age, sex and departments. Female sex were two times more likely to be injured by NSI than male sex AOR; 2.2 (95% CI, 1.0, 4.1). Health care professional less than 25 yrs of age four times more likely to get injury by NSI than those of age above 40yrs; AOR = 4.0 (95% CI; 1.7, 5.2). Staffs working in maternity unit were 99.1% less probably of having needle stick injury than those working in laboratory unit. AOR =0.09 (955 CI, 0.04, 0.23) KEY WORDS: Needle Sticks Injury, Safe Practice, Unsafe Practice Conclusion and recommendation The survey determined the very important significant association factors to needle stick injury depended on age, working departments, extended working hours and low experiences which di-rectly related skill development. And also over use of injection, unsafe practices and unfavorable environment are factors associated to needle stick injury. Training concentrating on injection safety, guide line on universal precaution and monitoring such implementation is much needed. 1



Assessment of prevalence and determinants of needle stick