Techno Typological Analysis of Developed Oldowan Early Acheulean Assemblages from Garba IV C and D, Melka Kunture (Upper Awash), Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


This thesis conceives of an analysis of Early Stone Age collections from Melka Kunture, particularly at Garba IV levels C and D. They were excavated between 1972 to 1985 and are today stored at the Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage. In spite of ongoing researches conducted at these localities, raw material influence on the knapping process of the knappers and the technological features of the previously nominated artifact traditions called “Developed Oldowan” is poorly understood. Methodologies like typological classification, measurement of the technological axis, width, depth and so forth, identification of raw material, understanding of thickness evennes along the technological line of artifacts were employed to address the problem. The production techniques were influenced by the type of raw material. Although large flake productions are not large in number, their appearance is an essential indicator about the emergence of the Acheulean. The low number of Large Cutting Tools is determined by the original size of the unworked material. On account of this, not only frequency of Large Cutting Tools, but also understanding various technological innovations of an artifact has been found to be important in characterizing Early Acheulean site. Therefore, the artifact tradition called “Developed Oldowan” was not understood to be independet technologicaly. It, rather, bears an evidence of technological similarities with the Early Acheulean



Developed Oldowan,Melka Kunture