About Addis Ababa University Institutional Repository (AAU-ETD)

AAU-ETD is an electronic open access institutional repository of Addis Ababa University that makes available and digitally preserves the scholarly outputs produced at AAU. The repository contains both published and unpublished work including: theses and dissertations,preprint,staff and student publications.

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All faculty are invited to submit their research to the AAU-ETD which is operated and maintained by Addis Ababa University Library. For further information please contact us at ________


Recent Submissions

Developing Sustainable Building Assessment Tool (SBAT) For Ethiopia: The Case of Addis Ababa
(Addis Addis University, 2023-06-01) Mekonnen Abebe Anshebo; Wubishet Jekale (PhD)
Currently different types of buildings are constructed in Ethiopian Cities especially in Addis Ababa but these buildings were not critically assessed and evaluated from the sustainability points of view because no Sustainable Building Assessment Tool developed so far and no institution is responsible to evaluate and certify the buildings. The research methodology is employed mixed approach types, a purposive sampling for the respondents, and both primary and secondary sources of data. Data was collected through field observation, interviews, survey questionnaires, and document analysis. These data were analyzed by using Statistical Packages for Social Science, MS-Excel, Reliability Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process. The findings are based on qualitative and quantitative examination of a rating and assessment systems for sustainable/ green buildings used in both developed and developing nations tailored to the local context. A sustainable building assessment categories and criteria were framed depending upon a consensus-based approach with 100 experienced experts working in the construction sector. The study's findings revealed that there are 68 criteria for the development of a sustainable building assessment for Ethiopia (Ethio-SBAT) under eight assessment categories with relative priority values are materials and resources (18.66%), sustainable sites and ecology (16.92%), energy efficiency (16.78%), indoor environmental quality (12.60%), economic aspects (10.41%), management (10.30%), water efficiency (8.06%), and location and transportation (6.27%) were also identified. Therefore it is crucial to put the developed Ethio-SBAT into practice because it will provide, for instance, good indoor environmental quality for users. Keywords: Sustainability, Rating systems, Green/Sustainable Buildings, Assessment Tool, Relative Priority Values
Governance, Planning and Management of Green Infrastructure in Addis Ababa
(Addis Ababa University, 2022-12-01) Bosena Yirga; Kumelachew Yeshetela (Professor)
Green infrastructure is a strategically planned network of natural and semi-natural areas aimed to achieve sustainable development. This infrastructure is shaped by governance approaches, planning, and management of natural resources. Many studies on green infrastructure have been conducted before, while research gaps remain on the governance of planning and management using evaluation criteria for spatial planning, green infrastructure planning principles, green space management models and governance principle, forest management policy approach, governance approaches, and green space fragmentation. The main objective of this thesis is to investigate governance, planning, and management of green infrastructure. The study, therefore, employed a mixed-method approach, quantitative and qualitative research methods. Empirical data were gathered using surveys, interviews, expert panel discussion, document analysis, and observation. Probability and non-probability sampling were used. The Probablity sampling was used to select household respondents and the non probability sampling used to select experts, park users, park staffs, park service contractors, key informants, and expert panel discussants. The data sources were primary and secondary. Using survey method, the primary data were collected from 74 experts, 70 park users, 15 park staff, 5 park service contracors, and 570 household respondents. In addition, 20 key informant interviews and one expert panel discussion were conducted. The secondary data were obtained from documents literature and web sources. The findings of this thesis revealed that green infrastructure has been at the initial stage of planning and there are gaps in the way spatial planning includes GI concepts, components, functions,and principles;relying on an authoritarian model of output-legitimacy, sectoral approach, and uncoordinated land-use led to weak governance of UGI planning; the conversion of green spaces, fragmentation, and governance process challenges; the evolution of forest policy characterized by a focus on different kinds of the forest, from production forest, plantation of trees, and to the inclusion of multi functional forests in the plan; unclear and sometimes blurred division of power contributed to deforestation; the shift in the country’s forest policy was embedded in the political economy of the country and emphasized a dominantly elitist approach; changes in planning and environmental policies; significant association between age and environmental knowledge, green space uses, and recognition of ecosystem services, income are the best predictors of government policy,and respondents are more willing to the management of green spaces.v Besides,the shift from the master plan approach to the structure plan help to incorporate ecosystem services and some of GI principles, and the increasing proportion of green structures in the present structure plan can be due to some changes in the role of the government; there is no comprehensive GI policy that can provide a strategic vision for embedding GI in spatial plans; the first, third, and fourth principles were poorly integrated into the plan. While the second principle is being moderately integrated into the plan; the interference of politicians and limited regional and national policy of GI shows little attention is given to the development of UGI; poor park governance practices, however, there is a tendency towards the application of governance by local communities using the User-Centered Model whereby community green spaces are managed by urban communities; changes in forest management show the move from government to governance by the government; the absence of a specific legal framework and policy on GI management and urban forest and recognizing, supporting the activities, and using the potential and preferences of residents will be important. Therefore,incorporating green infrastructure planning principles, adapting park management models that incorporate three levels of governance, long-term design for additional recreational areas; a governance arrangement that includes participation and inter and cross-sectoral policy approaches; developing zoning regulations, land use plans in a participatory and transparent manner,and the shift from government to governance are needed for sustainable green infrastructure development. the need to focus on a long-term design that encompasses additional recreational areas and to establish integrated green space management. Adapting the strategic park management and park-organization-user model that incorporates three governance levels is also important. Besides, applying a policy arrangement approach is a useful analytical tool to understand and explain the role of actors and policy ch angesin forest managements. Resident’s input is necessary for policies and plans. In Ethiopian urban areas, green infrastructure planning and management governance could be improved by using a framework developed for the governance of green infrastructure planning and management to address the future green infrastructure development based on three pillars. Keywords: Green Space Management; Park Management Models; Policy Approach: Spatialplans; Urban Planning
Tourism Destinations Promotion in Oromia National Regional State: The Practices, Challenges and Prospects
(Addis Ababa University, 2022-07) Deme Gudeta; Shiferaw Muleta (PhD)
Promotion in the tourism industry is allied to making the potential customers aware of the product and service available in the tourism destinations area and making sure that they satisfied and benefited if they become real customers. This study was envisaged with the objective of tourism destinations promotion in Oromia National Regional State: The practices, challenges and prospects. More specifically, it tried to assess the current status of tourism destinations promotion, identify promotional tools those have been employed by relevant agencies, assessed the factors that hinder tourism promotion activities and find out the prospects there to promote of tourism resources in the region. This is because of Oromia National Regional State stands at the very heart of the country possessing endowed tourism destinations, however, in case of inadequate promotion activities it didn’t benefit from the resource. Thus, to achieve the objectives, this study used descriptive research design and employed qualitative approach. Both primary and secondary sources of information were use. The primary data was gathered from 16 key informants, while secondary data was gathered through document review. Primary data were gathered from Oromia Culture and Tourism Bureau, Oromia Tourism Commission, Oromia Cooperative Promotion Agency and Oromia Market and Trade Bureau employees. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. The study found that despite the fact that a promotion activity is initiated in the region tourism destinations; there is a gap to address the area’s potential tourism destinations through professional promotion of resources. The major challenges emerge from changes within the tourism industry as well as from broader social, political, environmental, and economic developments. Changes in the industry’s markets and structures, economic slowdown, war and conflict and natural disasters are the other challenges. Therefore, the researcher recommends that all key actors in tourism industry should work together and the region’s relevant agencies are advised to use the latest technology to promote tourism destinations.
Museum Management Problems Affecting Tourism Development: The Case of National Museum of Ethiopia
(Addis Ababa University, 2022-06) Demissew Assfaw; Takele Merid (PhD)
The main objective of the study is to identify and present museum management problems which affecting tourism development in the National Museum of Ethiopia. Specifically, it deals with factors that challenge national museum management of Ethiopia, tourism development, its attractiveness and competitiveness. To address these objectives data were gathered from national museum of Ethiopia. Interview, focus group discussion (FGD), extended personal observation and questioners (both open ended and close ended) were tools to collect the data. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were administered. An explanatory and descriptive method was used to analyze and interpret findings from observation, questioner survey and informant interview. The findings show that absence of proper organizational structure, inadequate staffing, absence of marketing team, Inadequate space for exhibition, absence of Conservation and archivist team, absence of Museum Policy, Law and Declaration, absence of new museum product development, absence of consistent information among guides, absence of catalogue and inadequate toilet facilities are major problems and challenges of the national museum of Ethiopia. As a result museum regulations need to be evolved as quickly as viable due to the fact the various National Museum demanding situations are at once related to the absence of museum policies in Ethiopia. The National Museum of Ethiopia has to impartial from the EHA management for higher control and to interrupt the lengthy chain of bureaucracy. By doing so, the National Museum of Ethiopia could end up crucial cultural hubs that upload to the first-rate and richness in their communities. The analysis suggests that the structure and management practices of national museums could be aligned with the country's development efforts and should be managed in accordance with professional ethics.
Relating Pastoralists’ Culture Orientation, Livestock Marketing Practices, and Household Food Security among the Afar Pastoralists of Northeastern Ethiopia
(Addis Ababa University, 2022-07) Derib Woldeyohannes; Worku Tuffa (PhD); Workneh Kassa (PhD)
Ethiopia's arid and semi-arid regions provide the lion's share of the country's livestock resource endowments. Regardless of pastoral resource endowment, these areas are the poorest and most reliant on relief aid. Drawing on the debating contention that pastoralists prefer to accumulate and use pastoral produce for cultural purposes rather than trading for cash incomes, this thesis hypothesized that ‘the long-standing pastoralist tradition favors the accumulation and direct use of pastoral produce rather than remaining open to the market for exchange, thereby missing out on indirect (exchange) benefits toward food security’. Pastoral culture is present in the daily lives of pastoralists who establish and maintain relationships with one another by employing traditionally valued practices such as reciprocity and herd mobility. These are traditional survival strategies imbedded in their social norms, values, knowledge and institutions that are built up through generational learning, passed down orally through generations, and govern overall life. These communities rely on the traditional livestock farming sub-sector for their livelihoods and to meet their food consumption needs. In the face of recurring droughts, marketing pastoral produce is also a widely pursued approach to improve food security, and it has become equally important for supporting livelihoods in these areas. But, the potential contribution of pastoral marketing to the food security of pastoral production has received little attention. To this end, this study is guided by three key concepts: pastoral culture, marketing, and food security. Following that, the thesis attempted to address three specific objectives ultimately revealing the relationship between ‘pastoralism’, ‘marketing’, and ‘food security’ through a case study and survey data collected from (agro-)pastoral communities of Afar in Ethiopia. The study sought to shed light on the contribution of (agro-)pastoral marketing practices to food security by determining the extent to which pastoralists adhere to their traditions and how their orientation to culture norms influences their marketing interests. The thesis includes a literature review as well as three empirical studies. Methodologically, the thesis employed a mix of systematic literature review, case study analysis, household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS), ordered logistic regression, and propensity score matching (PSM) procedure. It begins with a systematic literature review to uncover "rural marketing – rural livelihood" relationships, which revealed that rural marketing had positive results at times and negative results at others, resulting in mixed effects on livelihood. The mixed effects necessitate a better understanding of the conditions that make rural marketing useful, as well as the mechanisms by which potential benefits may emerge. The review findings also indicate vii that, while rural marketing has been somewhat successful among upland communities, there is little empirical evidence that the same holds true for (agro-)pastoralists, implying that more research on the livelihood effects of rural marketing using data from (agro-)pastoral groups is required. As a result, using data from (agro-)pastoralists (as representing rural communities that received little attention in the reviewed ‘rural marketing – rural livelihood' relationship studies), the thesis empirically tested the potential positive/negative relationship between marketing practices and food security (as representing livelihood outcome). The first empirical study discovered a misalignment between Aramis-Adaar traditional practices and their livestock marketing endeavors, in which they operate under two competing systems of cultural and marketing practices (though both are important in sustaining livelihoods). Following the case study, the survey used Aramis-Adaar pastoral and Asale agro-pastoral groups and revealed ‘the links between pastoral cultural elements and food (in)security’, and estimated ‘the food security effects of livestock commercial-orientations’. The survey results suggest that while properly integrating pastoralists into the market could be an important mechanism for overcoming the numerous problems that constrain pastoralism, livestock marketing practices fall short of adequately and sustainably supporting pastoralism, owing primarily to market production constraining factors such as pastoralists' cultural orientations. Future policy must align and level the playing field for market production ('competition') and pastoralism ('cooperation') in order to meet the needs of both pastoralism and marketing at the same time.