Studies on the Species Composition and Behaviour of Anopheles Mosquitoes in Relation to Malaria Transmission in Doubti Woreda (Afar Region)

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Addis Ababa University


The species composition and behavior of Anopheles mosquitoes was studied in three selected agriculturally irrigated villages in Doubti Woreda (Afar region ) . Information on the malaria cases were also gathered from Afar Regional Health Bureau and Doubti hospital . The results of malaria case data showed that malaria has perennial transmission and its incidence increased from year to year. Plasmodium falciparum followed by Plasmodium vivax are the most frequently prevalent Plasmodium parasites in this area. Although both males and females are infected with malaria , males are more vulnerable. Age groups above 15 years are more affected followed by age groups 5- 14 years. Larvae collected from different breeding habitats throughout the study period showed the presence of two species: Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis, of which Anopheles arabiensis was predominant and encountered in several breeding habitats throughout the study period. Adult Anophelines collected from different resting places revealed that both Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis predominantly rest indoors than outdoors. Anopheles arabiensis collected indoor by aspirator shows significance difference at %2 = 5.544, P = 0.019. The biting behavior of these two species was predominantly exophagic. Anopheles arabiensis collected by human bait shows significance difference at %2 = 30.0 IP = 0.00. However, CDC light trap collection of this species shows predominantly indoor density at y2 = 65.47, P= 0.000. The parous rate of Anopheles arabiensis was 23.8% where as that of Anopheles pharoensis was 16.6%. The salivary glands dissected for sporozoite rate showed none of which were found infected with sporozoites.