Screening food lesl pa.ramelers 10 deice I adulleration of leff (Eragroslis leI (Zucc.) Troller) flour and injera with non-edible adulteranls

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Sileshi, Biruk

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Addis Ababa University


Teff(Eragrostis fe/ (Zuee .) Troner) is the main staple cereal in Ethiopia that is used to prepare a fermented flatbread with a unique slightly spongy texture named injera. Majority of Ethiopian diets consist of injera which accounts for about two--th irds of the daily protein intake of the Ethiopian population. Recently, adulterat ion ofteffflour and injcra with non·cdible ingredients is becoming a serious problem puning the consumers' health at risk. Therefore, the main purpose of th is study is to screen some of the common food analyses test parameters that could detect nonedible adu lterants in lef[ flour and injera for potent ial use in future routi ne inspection ana lysis. In the study, simulation of the adulteration was made on two widely distributed white teffvarieti es, namely Quncho TefT (DZ-Cr-387) and Magna TefT (DZ-O 1-196). Three adulterants were selected based on the information gathered from local health bureau, namely Sawdust (organic adulterant) and two inorganic adu lterants, chalk powder (calcium carbonate) and gypsum (calcium sulphate dihydrate). Based on the information gathered, the lefT to adulterant ratio was (7:3). Thus, the primary investigation was conducted on this adulteration ratio. Accordingly, the analyt ical tests at this adulteration ratio resulted in a significant mean value difference between the adulterated and control teff nour samples. Secondary investigation was done by preparing injera using lower ratio ofteff nour to adulterants (9.5:0.5), (9: I), (8.5: 1.5), (8:2) and (7.5:2.5), while unadu lterated (100%) teO' nour injera was used as control. Ratios resulting in acceptab le injcra appearance were used as cut-off adulteration ratios to apply the selected test parameters. The final investigation was conducted using the cut-off adulteration ratio, on which the selected test parameters were applied to compare significant mean differences (p < 0.05) between control and adulterated tefTnour and injera samples. The overall results of the physicochemical analysis showed that some parameters like crude ash, and crude fib re, and mineral analysis of calcium could be used as detection test parameters for samples as low as 5% adulteration ratio. Qualitative tests such as effervescence and precipitation are also effective tests to detect adulteration. Therefore, this study provides test parameters for preliminary teIT flour and injera adulteration detection, which can further be developed by concerned bodies to come up with standard analytical procedu res for the detection leff and te IT injera with the tested and other simi lar adu lterants.



Flour and injera with non-edible adulteranls