Assessment of vaccine wastage and its contributing factors in selected health centers of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Addis Abeba University


Introduction: Vaccine is life saving biological product that produces and enhances immunity to the vaccine-preventable diseases for which it is targeted. Vaccination prevents an estimated of 2.5 million deaths globally each year by reducing morbidity and mortality of children. Vaccine is a temperature sensitive product that needs special handling not to be waste. Even though vaccine wastage cannot eliminate totally at least it can be reduced to the possible minimum level by ensuring effective vaccine management. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the wastage rate of vaccines and vaccine wastage contributing factors in health centers, Addis Ababa. Method: Method of study was a descriptive cross-sectional study design. Sample size selected using a simple random sampling (lottery)method after allocation of the sample size proportionally into ten sub-cities based on number of health centers. Result: The highest wastage rates of vaccine were 29% (Measles)which is lyophilized and 26% (TT)and both are liquid and multi-dose vial vaccines. The low wastage rates were 6.5 % and 7% for Rota and pentavalent vaccine, respectively. These are single-dose liquid vaccines. The total wastage rates of vaccines were 22 %(202,224 doses) out of which 15% accounted for open vial vaccine wastages and 7% of them were close vial vaccine wastage. The total vaccine wastage rate in terms of estimated cost was accounted for 8 % (103,512.25USD). Conclusion and recommendation: The study showed high vaccine wastage rate for open, closed and lyophilized vaccines. The main reasons of open vial vaccine wastage were lack of ineffective application of in multi-dose vial policy in which, some liquid vaccines with multi – dose has to be discarded at the end of vaccination sessions. While the reasons of closed vial vaccine wastage were expiry due to ineffective stock management (over stock), improper application of first–expiry first-out and vaccine vial monitoring indicator change and freezing due cold chain management failure. The intervention to reduce vaccine wastage needs an effective implementation of stock management, cold chain management and multi-dose vial policy.



Vaccine, wastage, factors, open, close, vial, health, centers.