Rock Hyraxes and Clltnneous Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


Sevc.nty rock hyraxes of the genera proeavia and beterahyrax were trapped fom cl endemic (18) and nen-endemic areas (52).natural infection with leishumain aethiopice were not found either un smear 01: culture frdm n')8(:8 ()r <-'Drs uf captured animals .. Experimental infections wpre initiate:J in 26 hyraxes t 3 bab00ns and a grivet monkey. Inoculatinn of hyr~xcs rcsulte,i in either occult symptnmless infcct)ns, :~r failure to cstal>lish an infection. Twn the babocns 8n,1 the rivet ffi;)nkc>y ~r')VI:~rl to bSOSCCiJtible ancl LJrodu(',e.-l clinic<J.l lesi,)ns full(:H'ing infection. Cultures ()f hyrRx maer;'phages Were made nnll successfully infectc.d Hith L. '2.ethi(plcE: pr,)masti(-}tES. Dclrtyed type hypersensitivity rC3cti':}llS \'lC:t2 m(>asu:t(~(t hy skin testin£; and were si:.;nificantly hi;~hc:t in infccte'.i nnimnls and animals immuni.sed with leishmaui,q ~ \.;rhe.n cqmr.' t.) uninfec. ted animals. H(ver) skin t(;st respns(s coulcJ )nly be elicit('_d with a d{)se seven times higher than that :t()utincly used in humans. DTH 10si')n8 Here nevet" erythcmat(•.us ~ Nor.mal serum ,)f hyr.8.xes contains both natural 8;jglutinins Rnd cytotoxic factors although these wer2 l~w~r than those found in man and other animals. The direct it~ulutin~tiun assay showed t hat J n t i b ( die s t CJ 1 (. ish TTl (l n i PI P r r) mas) t e s r' roe r : S S i vel y increas foll()wing infection. It is 't)ussible that ~.his assay could be used for cpidemi::,1()f•.i(,~<11 deter,ti()n •:)f infections in Hild hyraxes. Cyt0toxic antibodies c')ull not be dem (nstratcd in hyraxes after infection artificialthey were produced folloing immunisation. Sanfly biting experiments did n[.t reveRI any infcctinns althuugh theylid reveal that the eyellds noselips and nostrils were common feeding sites.