Optimizing Operating Rooms’ Facility Layout Design

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Addis Ababa University


In Low and Middle-Income Countries such as Ethiopia, most operating rooms (ORs) are built without the proper consideration given to the layout design of the room. This is one of the major causes for the spread of infection. According to WHO, this affects one third of surgical patients in these countries [1]. Research relates the highest bio-burden in an OR to the professionals working in it. This research thesis aims to develop an improved and optimized OR layout [2]. The objective is to maximize infection control by considering the flow patients and of the professionals. Eight hospitals in Addis Ababa were selected for case study via a questionnaire. Literature review was done to study standards and guidelines requirement and recommendation on OR facility layout design and to investigate facility layout problems and modeling techniques. Based on the data collected from case studies and literature reviews on national and international standards, the flow of the professionals inside the OR was studied. It was then developed to an interaction adjacency matrix of the rooms inside the department. Then the OR layout model was created using graph theory technique which has shown to be the most successful modeling technique and the model was implemented on a MATLAB platform. The output was used to create alternative detailed OR designs for surgical center premise set up with minimum requirement and in a general and specialized hospital setups. Additionally, through the questionnaire, application of technologies in the OR facility and knowhow of the OR staff regarding facility layout design were studied. A block layout with 85.6% optimization was acquired. The alternative detailed/architectural designs were made using this block layout. These met national and international standards. The study clearly revealed the possibility of infection control through optimized OR layout design. The research also indicated that there is lack in the application of technologies and in professionals training (regarding their OR facility layout design) within the selected hospital ORs. This indicates that further in-depth research is necessary to collect input data that specifies a more detailed and accurate interaction between rooms in the OR department. In this case, using the developed MATLAB code, up to 96% optimization can be reached. As the staff and the technologies used have direct effect on infection control; on job training for the staff (to give awareness about the environment they work in) and implementation of technological advancements is essential.



Operating room,, Infection control, Facility layout design, Standardize, Graph Theory, MATLAB, Optimization