Studies on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters Among Male Population in a Severe Malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) Infested Area of Gambella Region, in South Western Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


Malaria is a blood disease caused by the bite of Anopheles mosquito. It is also a major health problem in developing countries accounting for 2-3 million deaths per year. The burden of malaria is increasing especially in sub-Saharan Africa because of drug and insecticide resistance, social and environmental changes, creating a major challenge in providing patients with this infection with effective malaria chemotherapy. Severe malaria affects almost all blood components and is a true hematological infectious disease. Anemia and thrombocytopenia are the most frequent malaria-associated hematological complications and they play a major role in malaria pathogenesis. Hypoglycemia is a frequently encountered complication in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, which is usually ascribed to decreased glucose use and impaired glucose production caused by the inhibition of gluconeogenesis. The Gambella People's Regional State is located at South West of Ethiopia and malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this region. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria on some biochemical and hematological parameters in Gambella region at Gambella General Hospital on adult males aged from 18-55. Hyperparasitemia in the adult males was considered as an important criterion for selection of individuals with severe malaria. Fasting blood glucose and hematological parameter (RBC, Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC and PLT) were measured in patients (n = 60) and control subjects (n = 40). The results were analyzed using student t- test and indicated significant difference in the hematological parameters between the malaria infected and non-infected subjects (p < 0.01). Adult males with severe malaria had significantly decreased levels of RBC, Hb, Hct and PLT also a significantly decreased level of fasting blood glucose (p < 0.01) but the level of MCV, MCH and MCHC were not significantly decreased when compared with the control group (p > 0.05). Hb and fasting blood glucose are positively correlated with demographic indicators and PLT negatively correlated with the demographic indicators in the study groups and control groups. The study concluded that investigation of biochemical parameters and hematological parameters showed certain changes of a sub-clinical pattern and severe Plasmodium falciparum can cause significant hematological changes with high incidence of thrombocytopenia and anemia. Consideration of these changes in adult males with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria might effectively reduce morbidity and mortality. Key words: - Fasting blood glucose, severe malaria, Plasmodium falciparum parasites, Hematological parameters, Gambella, Ethiopia



Fasting blood glucose; Severe malaria; Plasmodium falciparum parasites; Hematological parameters; Gambella; Ethiopia.