Physicochemical and Techno-Functional Properties of Recentlyreleased Ethiopian Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum. L)Varietiesgrown Inkulumsa,Arsi, Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum. L) is the most common cultivated wheat species-taking up to 95%of the wheatand staple foodfor consumersworldwide.Ethiopia is the top wheat producer in Africa and yetis not self-sufficient for the local consumption.Hence, the national wheat breeding programs in Ethiopia are trying to develop improved wheat varieties thatmainly focuses on improving grain yield and disease résistance without checking industrial quality.The objective of this studywas to investigate the physicalcharacteristics, nutritional composition, techno-functional properties, baking,and sensory quality of recently (2012 to 2018)released bread wheat varieties by the Wheat Improvement Program (WIP) of the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR). The Sixrecently released andpromising bread wheat cultivars were, Wane and Daka,Hidasse, Ogolcho, Kingbird, and Lemu,andPavon earlier released (1982)used as a check were grown at Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center under the same agronomic practice were evaluated.The standard procedures were used for all laboratory analysis and a straight dough baking method was used for bread baking process. The results showed that Thousand Kernel Weight (TKW) of the recently released bread wheat varieties were found to be in the range of 35.0g (Kingbird) to 45.5g (Hidasse) while Pavon scored 42.5g. Hectoliter Weights (HLW) of the varieties followed almost closer trend as TKW and it ranged between 78.4kg/hl (Kingbird) to 86.4kg/hl (Hidasse)whilecheck (Pavon) scored 81.1kg/hl. The single kernel characterization indicated that except for Hidasse soft wheat (32.02%) all the cultivars could be considered as hard wheat which makes them suitable for making leavened baked products. The measured protein content, crude fat, crude fiber, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, energy, starch, color, and mineralscontent in the wheat flour weresignificantly different at p < 0.05. The protein content of varieties showed that Wane (14.14) %to Ogolcho(9.74)% and gluten index Daka(94.57)% to Hidasse(59.12)% respectively. From this study, it can be concluded that the gluten qualities and quantity, protein content, and bread baking and sensorial quality of the wheat varieties were acceptable except Hidasse and can be utilized for the production of bread. Except for Hidasse, despite the visible differences in some ofthe measuredgrain physical qualities,flour qualities and thesensorial attributesbread made from the rest of evaluated wheat varieties were acceptable. Generally,Wane,Daka, and Pavon had superior performance while, Kingbird, Lemu, and Ogolcho had medium quality whereas Hidasse had poor baking quality.However,further researchesshould beconducted on these varieties on process optimizationfor better recommendations.



Wheat, Functional Properties, Bread Quality, Nutritional Composition