Use of Spent Coffee Ground (Scg) as Ingredient in Bread Formulation

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Addis Ababa University


Background: Spent coffee ground (SCG) is the most abundant byproduct (45%) of instant coffee production. The increase in brewed coffee consumption worldwide parallels the amount of SCG generated. Around 6 million tons of SCG is generated per year. SCG is full of nutrients, yet it is not utilized properly except as compost in few areas. It is dumped as a waste material harnessing environmental degradation. But considering its biochemical composition, it can be used as ingredient in food industries such as bakery. Objective: Therefore, the purpose of this study is to utilize SCG as a functional food ingredient in bread formulation. Through this valorization approach, the SCG incorporation proportion, glycemic index, overall acceptance and the physicochemical characteristics of the formulated bread were investigated. Materials and Methods: Wheat flour blends for (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% of SCG) for physicochemical and sensory properties also glycemic index and antioxidant activity of the formulated bread were investigated. Results: There is considerable variation in antioxidant properties of bread baked from wheat flour and SCG has total phenolic content (TPC) 2768.53μg GAE g−1 and total flavonoids content (TFC) was 2409.24 μg QE g−1. Moisture content of SCG during collection reached to 48.98%, and dried to 8.47% to control microbial activity. The SCG based bread had improved proximate composition compared to that of wheat based bread. Specially, the SCG incorporation has shown enhancement in fiber content of the bread for instance the bread formulation with 10% SCG is 5.31 mg/100g which is much higher than the white bread which is 1.56 mg/100gm. Sensory evaluation of the new product had resulted similar overall acceptance for SCG based bread of 2% composition at p<0.05. With 2%of SCG, the bread has improved with proximate composition of protein 7.79g/100g, fiber 2.51g/100g and energy 264.48 Kcal. Compared to white bread mentioned proximate composition had significant increase for the amount with equivalent energy. In addition to proximate composition TPC and TFC of this incorporation was also improved which is 476.92μg GAE g−1 and 1154.43μg QE g−1 respectively. Use of Spent Coffee Ground (SCG) as ingredient in bread formulation 2018 x In fact, the maximum concentration of SCG (10%) based bread had also showed glycemic index (GI) of 78.68 and minimum concentration 85.57.which is less than that of standard glucose and control white bread. Baking loss of the new product is also reduced due to the effect of the fiber complex water retention activity in SCG by 9.29% for maximum concentration in the formulation. Conclusion: Spent coffee ground contains high antioxidant dietary fiber and rich with minerals. Mixing wheat flour with SCG affected physicochemical property and sensory value of the bread. Therefore, the new formulated bread can be optional source of food to people consumption.



Spent Coffee Ground, Antioxidant Capacity, Fiber, Glycemic Index