Study on Lumpy Skin Disease Vaccination Practice Based on Field Survey and Vaccine Efficacy Based on Molecular Characterization of Immunogenic Genes in and Around Bishoftu Town, Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


Lumpy skin disease virus is a member of the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family, which affects cattle and causes significant economic losses. It is controlled by vaccination with capripox live attenuated vaccines. The aim of this research was studying lumpy skin disease Vaccination practice based on field survey and vaccine efficacy based on molecular characterization of immunogenic genes in and around Bishoftu Town, Ethiopia. Questionnaires were prepared for 101 cattle owners and animal health professionals incorporating questions with a major emphasis on LSD vaccine and vaccination practices. From transport related factors, inappropriate vaccine handling and lack of transport equipment‘s and from storage related factors electric outage and refrigerator problems were taken as important factors which have negative impact on effective vaccination. Nodular skin lesions that have been collected in 2022 from the same study area by the same project were used to isolate the virus using lamb kidney cells at virology laboratory of Animal Health Institute (AHI) of Ethiopia. Polymerase chain reaction was performed targeting the immunogenic genes; LSDV 117(A27L), LSDV122 (A22R), LSD 060 (L1R) and LSD 141 (B5R). Additionally, both the field isolates and currently on use LSDV vaccine strains (KS-180) from National vaccine institute (NVI) were sequenced and analyzed. The amplicons of 7 isolates and 1 vaccine strain (KS-180) immunogenic genes (LSDV117, LSD122, LSDV060) were used for sequencing. The sequence from Neethling vaccine strain NI-2490 and NVI/CaPV vaccine strain (KS-180 have an overall similar sequence for LSD117 (A27L) but the sequences from the field sample (wild strains) have two nucleotides substituted at 325nt and 360nt positions ‗A‘ by ‗G‘ and ‗G‘ by ‗A‘, respectively. But a wide range of mutation was found on LSDV112 (EEV glycoprotein coding) gene sequence analysis. This amino acid change may have a mutative advantage for the wild strain over vaccine strains while it interacts with the immune system. Reference capripox viruses were obtained from GenBank to create the phylogenetic tree. It is recommended that genome sequence information of LSD virus circulating in a specified area (i.e. Bishoftu) should be considered in order to enhance the efficacy of the vaccine used prevent and control LSD disease in study area. Improving the transport, storage and handling of a vaccine is important for the success of disease prevention as well.



Genome, Sequence analysis, phylogenetic analysis, lumpy skin disease, Capripoxvirus, Vaccine efficacy, LSDV, KS-180