Evaluation of Binding Capacity of Gum Fraction of Local Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha Syn. C.molmol) in Granule and Tablet Formulations

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Addis Ababa University


Evaluation of the Binding Capacity of the Gum Fraction of Local Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha Syn. C.molmol) in Granule and Tablet Formulations Taddese Mekonnen Addis Ababa University, 2012 Myrrh is an oleo-gum resin which is economically and culturally valuable product obtained from several species of the genus Commiphora. The chief source of myrrh is Commiphora myrrha (synonym C. molmol). They are important plant products used in several industries that include food, flavour, liquor and beverage, cosmetics, perfumery, pharmaceuticals and others. Gums are considered to be pathological products formed following injury to the plant or owing to unfavorable conditions. They are frequently used in pharmaceuticals as thickening, binding, emulsifying, and suspending, gelling and stabilizing agents and also used as coating materials in microencapsulation. As binders they impart adhesive qualities to the powder material by formulation of granules of the desired size, hardness, strength, friability and compressibility. In this study, the gum fraction of myrrh oleo-gum resin was extracted from local myrrh (Commiphora myrrha syn. C. molmol) and its binding capacity in granule and tablet formulations was evaluated using paracetamol as a model drug. Some physico-chemical properties of the extracted gum such as the presence of tannin and starch/dextrin, loss on drying, total ash value, pH of gum mucilage, water solubility index, swelling power, relative solubility, moisture sorption-desorption, viscosity and powder flow properties were investigated. Granules containing paracetamol were prepared using 2%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% w/w of the extracted gum and reference binders (PVP K-30 and Acacia BP) by wet granulation technique. The granules were characterized for particle size and size distribution, bulk and tapped densities, compressibility index and Hausner ratio, angle of repose, flow rate and friability. Tablets containing paracetamol and different concentrations of binders were prepared using a single punch tablet machine at a fixed compression force. Tablets were evaluated for their weight uniformity, thickness, iv diameter, hardness (crushing strength), tensile strength, friability, disintegration time and in vitro release profile. Finally, some properties of granules and tablets prepared with the extracted gum were compared with properties of respective granules and tablets prepared using the reference binders. The results indicated that the myrrh gum exhibited good relative solubility in cold and hot water, good water solubility index, poor swelling power, acceptable moisture content, small total ash value, no tannin and starch/dextrin content, gum mucilage with acidic pH, high moisture sorption-desorption pattern, and acceptable viscosity and powder flow properties. The granules prepared with the myrrh gum and reference binders all showed good particle size and size distribution, flow and compressibility properties, and friability decreased with increasing binder concentration. All the prepared tablets passed pharmacopoeial specifications with respect to their uniformity of weight, thickness, diameter, hardness and tensile strength. However, all tablets with 2% binder concentration failed to comply with the pharmacopoeial specification for friability test (> 1%). Disintegration times of tablets were determined and only those tablets prepared with myrrh gum and acacia as binders at 10% concentrations failed to meet the British pharmacopoeia specification for disintegration (>15 min). In vitro drug release studies showed that there was a general decrease in the release rate of paracetamol from the tablets as the binder concentration increased. Tablets made with myrrh gum as binder gave higher dissolution profile than acacia and comparable profile to tablets prepared with PVP K-30. Key Word: Myrrh gum



Myrrh gum