Relations between Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: an Adaptation of a Mea Sure of Locus of Control

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Addis Ababa University


Using an Amharic version of the CNSIE (Children's Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control Scale ) , 360 4th through 12th graders (186 of which were males and 174 females) were randomly selected and studied . Following the pilot study, during which the instrument was tested and refined, the main study was launched . In both the pilot and the main studies, the effect of a socially desirable response bias was observed to be minimum . The purpose of this study was to test whether or not locus of control (i) develops with age, (ii) differs for males and females of the same age, and (iii) relates to academic achievement. Furthermore, family factors affecting locus of control were assessed and cross cul tural comparisons were made. Results showed that internality orientation (i) progresses wi th an increase in age or grade level, (ii) does not differ for males and females of the same age, and (iii) positively relates to higher academic achievement. Also, more internals perceived their parents as authoritative and more externals reported their parents as authoritarian. Mo~eover, Eighth graders considered luck, wish, and forcune telling circumstances as posi tive attributes associated wi th good consequences which comparable American subjects did not believe. Results were explained and implications forwarded



Relations between Locus of Control