Effect of Shallow Groundwater on City Infrastructural Plan The Case of Addis Ababa

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Addis Ababa University


The main aim of this paper is to Understand and address impact of shallow Groundwater in Addis Ababa city infrastructural development plan which plays a vital role for the present and future urbanization of the city. In this study a three dimensional (3D) steady state GMS based groundwater modeling MODFLOW was used to characterize and assess the shallow groundwater flow. This model develop soil stratigraphy from borehole log data and need the hydrogeology data, recharge and river boundary conditions as its input for aquifer parameter. Thus a simplified two layer conceptual model was created by the perennial rivers in the basin as constant head boundary and the top surface as a recharge boundary from annual rainfall. This conceptual groundwater model includes the river and precipitation as inflow to the groundwater or source and discharging well with depth less than 100m were used as outflow from aquifer or sink. Up on all the given input hydraulic heads was generated and simulated. In the calibration 115 shallow wells were used. The calibration was made to an accepted level of error value of head difference 0-5 meter for each well by the software. The model clearly shows the groundwater hydraulic head and flow direction follows the general topography of the study area. Beside the master plan was analyzed and described by looking into the hydraulic head together with the city infrastructural plan. For selected sites in the city sub-model were developed for further analysis on effect of shallow groundwater on city infrastructural plan.



Infrastructural plan, MODFLOW, MODPATH, Shallow Groundwater, Addis Ababa