Accommodating the Needs of Students with Visual Impairment in Ethiopian National Examinations

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Addis Ababa University


The purpose of this research is to investigate to what extent Ethiopian National Examinations are accommodating candidates with visual impairment. In this study, blind and low sighted students who are admitted for National examinations, exam development experts, exam administration experts, school teachers and administrators, leaders of single and cross disability organizations(visually impaired persons), officials of National Educational Assessment and Examinations Agency(NEAEA) and the Federal Ministry of Education are participated. The method used in this study was mixed. Questionnaire, interview, focus group discussion, and documentary analysis were used for data collection. The findings of the study indicated that Ethiopian National Examinations were not accommodating candidates with visual impairment. In Ethiopian National Examinations, candidates with visual impairment are examined in a similar standard with the rest “sighted” candidates. According to the findings, attitudinal problems in enforcing the UN convention of Persons with Disabilities, absence of accessible learning materials and school facilities, rigid curriculum, lack of awareness, and absence of technology which is the best equalizer for persons with disabilities, absence in using appropriate accommodation for SWVI are among the major challenges affecting students directly and indirectly in National Examinations. Data from NEAEA has also indicated the achievement of blind students in Ethiopian National Examinations was far behind the “sighted” candidates. In general the research recommends for the overall improvement in assessment of candidates with visual impairment including the use of different accommodation alternatives and technologies during national examination development and administration, allocation of earmarked budget for accessible educational materials and assistive technologies as well as infrastructural arrangements Key words: students with visual impairment, national examinations, accommodations, disability, assessment etc



National Examinations, Students With Visual Impairment, Accommodations, Disability, assessment etc