Entomological Studies on the Species Composition and the Significance of Insecticide Treated Mosquito Nets (ITNs) Against Malaria Vector in Guragie Zone, Southern Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


Studies on species composition and significance of Insecticide Treated mosquito Nets (ITNs) for malaria vector control were conducted in four randomly selected localities in Jolie Peasant Association, Meskan Woreda, Guragie Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Larval and adult collections were carried out, from different sites throughout the study period to identify species composition, thus three Anopheline species: Anopheles gambiae s.l., Anopheles pharoensis and Anopheles christyi were identified. An. gambiae s.l. was the principal vector responsible for the transmission of malaria in the study area. The main identified breeding sites in the study area includes rain pools, river pockets, ponds, marshes and pools of water from spillage of canals which are the result of human activities rather than environmental causes. To investigate the effect of Insecticide (Permethrin) Treated Mosquito Nets (ITNs), 20 houses with and without ITNs were paired. Malaria incidence, resting density and parity rate were assessed. The result of malaria incidence showed that the difference was not significant at (2 = 0.6247, P > 0.05). However, a clear reduction in the density of indoor resting population of An. gambiae s.l. were found in houses with ITNs (t = 10.0278, df = 38, p < 0.05). Similarly, the parous rates were significant at (2 = 4.657, p < 0.05). Further entomological studies are required to determine the vectorial status of the Anophelines in this area. Besides, in providing an enabling environment for scaling-up actions, governmental sectors need to focus on creating awareness on utilization and demand for ITNs through health information channels and mass media. At the end of 2004, 107 countries and territories had areas at risk of malaria transmission. Some 3.2 billion people lived in areas at risk of malaria transmission. An estimated 350–500 million clinical malaria episodes occur annually; most of these are caused by infection with P. falciparum and P. vivax. Malaria causes more than 1 million deaths each year, out of which 90% of the malaria cases and deaths occur in Africa. It also contributes indirectly too many additional deaths, mainly in young children, through synergy with other infections and illnesses (World Malaria Report, 2005; TDR, 1997-98). In Africa, Southeast Asia and Eastern Mediterranean region estimated number of deaths due to malaria in 2002 indicates that, 89% (1,136,000), 5.1% (65,000), and 4.6% (59,000), respectively. Malaria control in Africa is less successful because of the occurrence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant vectors, changes in the resting behavior of mosquito (from endophily to exophily) as the result of frequent indoor insecticide sprays, lack of efficient infrastructure, shortage of trained man power, lack of equipment, financial constraints, lack of appropriate management and inability to integrate several method of control (World Malaria Report, 2005; Toure, 1999).