Assessment of Drinking WaterQuality from Source to Point Use (The Case of Mojo Town, Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia)

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Addis Ababa University


The quality of drinking water has deteriorated due to insufficient treatment plant, direct discharge of untreated wastewater, and ineffective management of piped water distribution systems. The study was conducted on assessing drinking water quality from source to point of use in Mojo town in Oromia region. To achieve the goal of this study, fourteen water samples were collected from different sources and from a household tap, using the purposive sampling method. The pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), iron, ammonia, residual free chlorine, fluoride, nitrates, sulfates, total hardness, and Microbiological (total coliforms and faecal coliform bacteria) parameters were determined using laboratory analysis. Laboratory results of bacteriological analysis indicated 66.67% of household tap water samples in kebele two and 60% of water samples in kebele one indicating the presence of total coliforms. On average, 25% of the total household tap shows the presence of faecal coliforms. This is due to a poorly maintained distribution network, improper waste management and broken piping materials. Based on the laboratory results, a large proportion of the community gets the ammonia concentration. 75% of household and 60% of borehole water samples were exceeding the recommended value by the World Health Organization and the national standard. The highest temperature was recorded at BH1, BH2 and BH3 (25,31,29) respectively which is 60% of the total borehole water samples. Turbidity measurements taken from tap water samples especially around kebele one namely HH4, HH5 and HH6 were found to be higher than the recommended value. In addition, a relatively high level of fluoride was observed in BH5. 21.43% of the water sample of the total Iron above WHO recommended level (0.3 mg/l). In addition, a high amount of nitrate concentration was observed in most of the household and borehole samples. All remaining physical and chemical parameters were safe and within acceptable drinking water quality range. In conclusion, poor sanitation, low level of hygiene, and uncontrolled disposal of solid and liquid waste were among the causes of water pollution in the study area. In addition, it is also recommended that the current state of the Mojo water quality system be improved, the proper management of both liquid and solid wastes, the promotion of improved sanitation practices and the constant inspection of water quality.



Water Quality Parameters, Who Standard, Sanitation and Hygiene, Mojo, Ethiopia