The Role of Incretin Hormone in Type 2 Diabetes

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Addis Ababa University


Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease associated with low quality of life and early death. It is now well established that beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are two central defects in the pathophysiology of T2DM. Recently, improved understanding of the incretin effect on the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes has led to development of new hypoglycemic agents. The incretin effect refers to the amplification of insulin secretion that occurs when glucose is ingested orally as opposed to infused intravenously in amounts that result in identical glucose excursions. Objective: To review the role of incretin hormone in type 2 diabetes. Methode: The review was conducted as a systemic review. Articles were searched from MEDLINE, HINARI and PUBMED in English language with the key words incretin or gut hormone, type 2 diabetes, and the role of incretin in type 2 diabetes. Result: A total of 65 studies were retrieved. Of these, 12 were considered to be relevant up on initial screening. Abstract of these 12 articles were reviewed and while 5 studies excluded. 7 studies were agreed upon to meet the inclusion criteria. Conclusion: The incretin effect was significantly reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes.GLP-1 concentrations and response is also reduced. But the GIP concentration is increased, reduced or normal. Incretin secretion is increased after oral glucose compared with intravenous infusion.



Type 2 diabetes, Glucagon Like Peptide-1(GLP-1), Glucose Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP), Incretin effect.