Environmental cost Benefit Analysis of Waste to Energy Recovery in Nifas Silk Lafto Sub city Addis Ababa

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Addis Ababauniversity


Addis Ababa current solid waste management system is in crisis and faces important political, geographical and environmental challenges that make it nonsustainable. Therefor there is an urgent need to move towards an integrated solid waste management that includes modern alternatives, such as waste-to- energy recovery (WTER). In a sustainable development approach, waste should be regarded as a resource for materials and energy recovery and not simply as a product for disposal. The objective of this research is to propose an integrated solid waste management for lafto sub city that focuses on the use of WTER as the key component. This study offers a cost benefit analysis of one WTER plant that will serve Lafto sub city. The mass burn technology of the martin reverse –acting grate was selected for a WTER plant of capacity of 1000 metric tones /day but for the case of lafto sub city it is modified to accept small amount of solid waste. This plant will provide 540 kg/ton of MSW of net charcoal out put to utilities. The cost-benefit analysis indicated that at the assumed benefits from charcoal production, liquid bi-product and inorganic part of solid waste the project has a positive Net Present Value (NPV) of $9,049,949 at a 9% discount rate, therefore the project should be undertaken. The initial investment would be paid back in 4 years while the WTER plant would have a useful life of at least 30 years. Thus, the sensitivity analysis showed that the WTER facility could charge a significantly lower cost than current dumping system and still have a positive NPV. However, a very small increase or decrease in the charcoal price or heating value can make a dramatic difference in profitability. Before the construction of the plant, the none-quantifiable impacts such as the environmental, social and economic factors must be carefully examined. The perception of air pollution associated with the incinerators of the past and the location of the WTER plant are factors that could generate opposition from the host community. On the other hand, modern Waste-to-Energy Recovery plants have been shown to result in a dramatic decrease in air emissions in comparison to dumping site. Also, their emissions are much below the EPA standards and lower than coal power plant emissions. In addition, the location of a WTER plant will be closer to the municipality than the present dumping site. This will reduce truck travel and diesel emissions to the atmosphere, and a significant reduction in generated smog. Overall, the non-quantifiable benefits seem to overweight the non-quantifiable costs, therefore supporting the construction of a WTER plant for Lafto sub city, Addis Ababa. The community would have to be educated about these issues. Considering that the current waste management situation in lafto sub city is almost identical to the rest of Addis Ababa, the possibilities of WTER as a widespread solution for waste management are very promising. Addis Ababa’s city government should implement an integrated solid waste management system that would perfectly solve the problem arising from solid wastes. Addis Ababa city government has already started recycling solid wastes. This decreases the amount of solid wastes that will disposed to the dumping site. In addition, the WTER plant proposed 8 in this research for Lafto sub city could process an additional solid waste stream of Addis Ababa. Under this condition, Addis Ababa’s waste to be disposed into dumping site would be reduced. This would be a major step towards Integrated Solid Waste Management and the goals of sustainable development. Positive experience with WTER and its widespread use in other countries should provide an encouraging prospect for Addis Ababa too.



wasteto Energy Recovery