Genetic Diversity Study of Five Ethiopian Indigenous Bovine Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers

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Addis Ababa University


The current study describes the genetic variability within and among five Ethiopian indigenous bovine breeds viz; Abigar, Boran, Horro, Guraghe and Sheko based on nine microsatellite markers (TGLA227, ETH3, ETH10, ETH152, ETH225, BM2113, BM1824, ILSTS049 and TGLA53). The Abigar breed represents the Sanga (cross between Bos taurus and Zebu breed) cattle breed, the Boran and Guraghe highland are grouped under Zebu breed, the Horro breed fall under Zenga (cross between Sanga and Zebu breed) cattle and the Sheko cattle belongs to humpless shorthorn (Bos taurus). Blood samples were taken randomly from10 unrelated animals from each cattle breed and DNA was isolated for PCR amplification. The PCR products were resolved on eight or 10% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels, based on the size of the products, and visualized by GelRed staining. Allelic frequencies, hetrozygosity values, polymorphic information content (PIC), genetic differentiation and genetic distance were estimated. The allelic frequencies were also tested for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The result of the current study indicated that the total numbers of alleles observed overall loci in Abigar, Boran, Guraghe, Horro and Sheko were 67, 65, 54, 58 and 59, respectively. The breeds showed deviation from HWE at least at one of the loci examined, except the Boran breed which was found to be at HWE for all loci studied. The overall observed and expected hetrozygosity values and PIC were 0.782±0.079, 0.847±0.050 and 0.828±0.057, respectively. The mean observed hetrozygosity value in Abigra, Boran, Guraghe, Horro and Sheko were 0.800±0.071, 0.803±0.157, 0.761±0.109, 0.781±0.133 and 0.763±0.084, respectivey, The Nei’s expected hetrozygosity values in these breeds were found to be 0.820±0.036, 0.798±0.065, 0.788±0.070, 0.780±0.063 and 0.783±0.049, respectively. Generally, the genetic differentiations between the breeds were low. Moreover, non-significant (P>0.05) differentiation were noticed in the study (between Boran and Guraghe, between Guraghe and Horro and between Boran and Horro).The partitioning of genetic variability based on overall FST values indicated 2.2 % of variation was due to between the breeds studied whereas the remaining (97.8%) was due to variation among individuals. The inbreeding coefficients within and among were small, 0.070±0.031and 0.090±0.27, respectively. Genetic distance based on Nei’s corrected distance was found to be least (0.027) between Boran and Guraghe and highest (0.229) between Boran and Sheko. Generally, a dendrogram following UPGMA clustering generated based on Nei’s genetic distance matrix agreed with the evolutionary history of the breeds studied.