2D Hydrodynamic Modeling of Rib River Flooding

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Addis Ababa


Flood occurs repeatedly in Ethiopia and cause tremendous losses in terms of property and life, particularly in the lowland areas. The majority of flood disasters’ victims are poor people living in nearby stretch of floodplain. Therefore, the study was carried out to perform floodplain analysis and risk assessment of Fogera and nearby areas. This research involves the integration of 2D Structured Mesh Generator (CCHE-MESH) and hydrodynamic numerical model (CCHE2D model) with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to develop a regional model for floodplain determination and representation. The study describes the flood extent and depth in the area for flow condition derived from the historical flow data of the Rib River. Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) was prepared from shape file generated from spot elevations of the floodplain through field survey data and the DEM of the study area in ArcGIS. Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) is converted to an ASC II format, which is supported by the CCHE-MESH and CCHE2D model. Boundary condition for the inlet is specified as total discharge and discharge hydrograph for steady and unsteady simulation respectively and for the outlet a constant water level of Lake Tana (1788m) is specified as a downstream BC which allows for simulation of the free flow condition at the river outlet. Initial conditions are defined based on information on gauges or through introducing a so called warm-up that precedes the actual simulation period and boundary conditions are generally specified from hydrometric data such as time series data of discharge and stage or simulated discharge hydrograph. Maps of flood Extent, Level, Depth and Velocity are developed using 100 years return period flood. The Flood has the inundation area of 47.13km2 while the simulated flood extent has flood depths less than 5.9m. The depth between 5.9m and 2m is located along the river channel and on the pond which is located south of the rib river. However, the depths below 2m exist largely on the flood plain which extend 4 km and 3 km outside right bank and the left bank of the main river respectively. The simulated water level ranges between 1798.4m ASL at the upstream and 1788m ASL at the downstream end of the main river. The simulation result indicates much of the flooding occur in the middle part of the river where the flow behaviour is mainly dominated by the inflow from the Rib River. Most of the areas around the flood plain are cultivated land with less proportion of Agro-pastoral, Marsh and Pastoral. 85-90% of the flood inundated areas are covered by agricultural land. The remaining 10-15% is covered by Agro-pastoral near inlet to Lake Tana.



Hydrodynamic Modeling