Discovery Physical Properties Synthesis and Application of Graphene

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Addis Ababa University


Among systems with only carbon atoms, like diamond and graphite, graphene is the world’s first two dimensional allotrope of carbon. It is a thin layer of pure carbon; it is tightly packed layer of carbon atoms that are bonded together in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. In more complex terms, it is an allotrope of carbon in the structure of a plane of sp2 bonded atoms with a molecular bond length of 0.142 nanometres. Layers of graphene stacked on top of each other form graphite, with an interplanar spacing of 0.335 nanometers. Charge carriers in graphene are discribed by the Dirac-like equation and have zero effective mass. It is the thinnest compound known to man at one atom thick, the lightest material known, the strongest compound discovered, the best conductor of heat at room temperature and also the best conductor of electricity known. Other notable properties of graphene are its unique levels of light absorption at 2.3% of white light. There are probably a dozen methods being used and developed to prepare graphene of various dimensions, shapes and quality. The mobility of graphene is very high which makes the material very interesting for electronic high frequency application. In the near future graphene used on commercial scale on optoelectronics; specifially touch screens, liquid crystal displays (LCD) and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) for smart phones, tablet and desktop computers and televisions



Discovery Physical Properties