Quality Assessment of Rural Drinking Water Supply Schemes from Source to -Point of- Use. (A Case Study of Ada‟A Woreda, in Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia).

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Addis Ababa University


The poor quality of drinking water leads to water related diseases. The study was carried out to determine drinking water quality supply schemes of rural Ada‟a Woreda at the source and point of use by assessing current water service that provided to the household. Total 36 water samples were collected from different sources and household (point -of -use). The PH, Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Fluoride, Nitrate, Total Hardness, Calcium and Magnesium Hardness, Phosphate and Microbiological (Total Coliform and C.coliform/CFU) of the samples were determined using laboratory analysis. The result was then compared with the WHO and Ethiopian water quality standards. Results:- show that improved water supply schemes of woreda did not contain total coliform or E.coli at source level except one sample (SW-7 which contained total coliform of 8 cfu/100ml) which might be due to poorly maintained and crack damaged of the apron. However, water at point -of-use (household) from both shallow well and deep wells-indicates a decline in bacteriological level (0-57cfu/100ml T.C and 0-50cfu/100ml E.C) as compared to water at the source level. High record of calcium in two sources (S7 & S9 in Katella Kebele) which were 81.8 mg/l and 96.5 mg/l respectively observed which is greater than the recommended value of WHO and National Standard (75mg/l). In addition, high fluoride content was relatively observed in Dirre shoki kebele. In conclusion, significant effect of technologies (shallow well and deep well) on water quality at the sources was not observed. In addition, high bacteriological level was investigated at the point of use as compared at the source; this might be attributed to water handling problems. Thus, chemical treatment at point-of-use is suggested as an appropriate solution to eliminate any postsource contaminations. In addition, it is also recommended that the future work has to be done to modify existing water development strategies by considering water quality at point-of-use. Moreover, awareness must be created about water; hygiene and sanitation (WASH) for rural communities to reduce water related disease. Key words:-Water Quality Assessment at source and Household, Physicochemical and Microbial parameters, WHO Standard, Water-Related Disease &Ada’a Woreda, Ethiopia.



Water Quality Assessment at source and Household; Physicochemical and Microbial parameters; WHO Standard; Water-Related Disease &Ada’a Woreda; Ethiopia