Adoption of Electric Vehicle and Efficiency Improvement of Storage System in Addis Ababa

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Addis Ababa University


This thesis contributes to the problem description of the impact of geographical landscape and road dynamics in the process of adoption of electric vehicles in the case of Addis Ababa/Ethiopia. The impact of Addis Ababa road dynamics and topographic distribution of the city have been investigated and it was compared with various international drive cycles like EUDC, NYDC, and WLTP. By considering the worst possible scenario for modelling electric vehicle dynamics and energy storage system; this thesis provides an alternative engineering solution using battery and ultra capacitors. The investigation was done concerning electric vehicle regenerative braking energy gain possibilities and the magnitude of energy consumption from an energy storage system. From the simulation result, it was found that the magnitude of the maximum acceleration-deceleration was about 1.57m/s² and 2.81m/s² respectively and the frequency of stop time was around 31 with in the city. In addition to that, because of rugged nature of the topography; the tractive and regenerative energy consumption of the city was about 6637KJ and -281KJ respectively. It was observed that a larger magnitude of acceleration-deceleration rate and regeneration braking energy has been recorded compared to any other international city. Due to this nature of the city, 8 % state of charge battery variation has been found within 400 seconds of simulation time. From the finding, due to the nature of the city; battery Energy storage system is less efficient when compared to hybrid energy storage system hence electric vehicle implemented in the city of Addis Ababa/Ethiopia need to be redesigned. This thesis recommends fuzzy logic control based battery and ultra capacitor hybrid energy storage system which consider topographic distribution and road dynamics of the city. Adopting electric vehicles without considering the above issue may lead to performing under the manufacturer's specification. Specifically, degradation of batteries and reduced use of the range of travel per single charge.



Electric vehicle energy storage, Battery-Ultra capacitor hybrid, Fuzzy logic control, Proportional Integral Control,, Geographical distribution, Traffic road dynamics, Drive cycle, Regenerative braking