Factors Affecting Women's Participation in Government Primary School Principals hip in Eastern Zone of Tigray National Regional State

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Addis Ababa University


The mainpwpose of this study was to examine the factors that affect women's participation in the primary school principals hip in Eastern Zone of Tigray. To achieve this purpose, the study employed a descriptive survey method, mainly quantitative and supplemented By qualitative research methods to enrich the data. With this respect, teachers, principals and woreda education office experts were the sources of data for the study. Data gathering instruments such as questionnaire, interviews and document assessment were conducted. In addition to these, focus group discussion was held with 20 teachers in two non sampled selected schools of Gulo-Mekada Woreda. Stratified (rural & town), purposive (2 rural woredas), availability (3 WEO heads &3 ex-female principal teachers) and simple random lottery method(300 teachers, 20 principals, &6 WEO experts respondents plus focus group discussion & pilot test participants} sampling techniques were employed. Questionnaires were piloted in Nigste-Makda and kisanet and 0.915 andO.847 alpha was obtained respectively which indicated a good reliability. Then, it was distributed to 300 primary school teachers, 20 principals and 6 WEO experts (torally 326). A total of 318 (97.5%) were filled, returned and used from the three occupational respondents. The data obtained was then analyzed using frequencies, mean, weighted & grand mean scores, t-test, one way ANOVA, chi-square (X2) and Post Hoc comparison of means. The results suggested that society 's negative opinion regarding women principal's ability and competence to hold the position of educational principals hip was comparatively changed to some degree. In spite of their competence, however, women have still no prevalence and are under represented at the educational administrative levels. Hence, the major causes that prevent women's participation in primary school principalship were: fear of role conflict between professional and family lives, fear of being assigned to distant schools, society's perception regarding women's role and gender role socialization, self image of women themselves, lack of visibility, lack of monitoring and evaluation of the policy in implementation, lack of Informal networking to improve the existing situation. It is concluded that women's participation is seriously restricted by the affecting factors and women are not benefiting themselves & the society to the maximum potential. ~easures such as: Strengthening women's net works, women's change of outlook on their skills pursing higher education, relocation improvemeni, parents' encouragement of gender equality, access of predetermined administrative activities and creation of s ociety 's awareness were recommended to be taken. Educational institutions should have 'clear procedures for carrier advanceritent and s election criteria and recruitment. Successful women principals, government and non-govemment organ.izations should create massive gender-sensitization training to all school communities and society. Finally, practitioners and government shou.ld be sensitive on the implementation of the policy of women in all fields of development by installing effective monitoring, evaluating and communicative systems with implementers at grass root level from early beginning to its end. Further in depth study was recommended in the fUture



Factors Affecting Women's Participation