A Study on the Provision of Primary Education in Pastoral Woredas of Borena Zone

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Addis Ababa University


The main purpose of this study was to examine the provision of primary education for pastoral Borena Children, identify the major constraints that hinder their participation and the provision of quality education and finally, come up with possible intervention strategies that should be implemented to alleviate the problems. The subjects of study were 196 students, 98 teachers, 23 educational personnel and 30 Parent Teacher Association members of six primary schools. The necessary information was secured from these subjects through questionnaires, structured interviews and document analysis. In addition, educational statistics and annual abstracts of the MOE and OEB were used to obtain the necessary data regarding pupils ' rate of participation in primary education. The data obtained from questionnaires were analyzed using statistical tool like, percentage, mean value and weighted mean. The data from documentary analysis reveals that the status of pastoral Borena Children partiCipation in primary schools of the zone is low. The quality of education is too poor. As the findings of this study indicates, school related factors like, school distance, curriculum irrelevance, lack of school facilities and utilities and rigid school calendar have been identified as major problems in the educational particrpation of pastoral Borena Children. Socia-economic constraints like, low household income, financial costs attached to schooling, absence or shortage of primary schools, parents illiteracy, high demand for child labour, the need for immediate gratification by parents', resource-based conflict and health problem have been major constraints. Moreover, socia-cultural factors such as, the view of parents in considering gir1s as economically important assets, parents preference to give priority to thtlir sons over their daughters schooling, shortage or absence of role model female teachers, low value given to education by parents and early marriage were considered as a barriers. Furthermore, shortage of teachers' in quality and quantity, lack of adequate supervision, shortage of instructional materials, lack of adequate budget and competent educational personnel have been identified as the major constraints to provide quality education in the study area. Hence, it is concluded that, in most cases, the provision of primary education for pastoral Borena children was a function of socia-economic, socia-cultural and school related problems. Depending on the results of findings, expansion of non-formal education, designing flexible school calendar, introducing boarding schools, making curriculum relevant, constructing schools near the communities, improving the effectiveness of primary schools, expanding classrooms and upgrading schools, promotion of sensitization program on the value of education, recruiting and motivating the existing teachers and provision of school feeding program were among sound strategies which have been identified to enhance the participation rate of children in primary education and to promote quality primary education in pastoral woredas of Borena zone.



Primary Education in Pastoral Woredas