Female Labor Force Status and Fertility in Akaki - a Sub-urban Industrial Town in Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


This thesis focuses on the relationship between fertility and female labor force status in Akaki town. The study was based on a sample survey of 1475 eligible women belonging to the three female labor force status categories, namely, formal, informal and no work categories. Women were classified as eligible if they were aged 15-49, currently married, living with their first husband, fecund and had at least one live birth. The thesis discusses the sampling procedure employed and the quality of data; and examines the interrelationship between fertility and female labor force status using bi-variate and multi-variate statistical techniques of data analysis. Multiple classification analysis (MeA) and the log linear models were used in the multi-variate analyses. The Bongaarts model was also employed in order to show the interrelationship between female labor force status, fertility and some of the proximate variables. Fertility measured by children ever born was treated as the dependent variable and female labor force status (classified into formal, informal and no-work) was treated as the independent variable. Other variables such as age at first marriage, contraceptive use, duration of breast-feeding (in months), education, family type, childhood place of residence, husband's income and occupation were used as control. The findings indicate that fertility is inversely related to work of women in the formal labor force status category where as it is positively associated to work of women in the informal labor force status group. No definite relationship between female labor force status and fertility was observed in the case of women in the nowork category. Longer birth interval, higher contraceptive use, shorter duration of breast-feeding and lower desired family size were observed for women in the formal sector while for women in the informal sector, shorter birth interval, longer lactational period, lower contraceptive use and higher desired family size were observed. Results were not consistent for non-working women. Finally, the study concludes by suggesting some policy implications for intervention in areas of fertility and labor force participation as well as the need for detailed research in the same area.



Female Labor Force Status, Fertility in Akaki - a Sub-urban