Development and Characterization of Bread from Mushroom and Wheat Composite Flour

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Addis Ababa University


This study was focused on substituting a part of whole wheat flour (WWF) with mushroom flour (MF) to develop mushroom bread for children, as an attempt to solve the problem in protein energy malnutrition of children from 1-5 years. The effect of mushroom supplementation on some physico-chemical and sensory properties of wheat bread was determined, as well as the dough rheological properties(farinograph) of the whole wheat flour with various proportions of the protein- rich mushroom flour were investigated. Examination of the functional properties of two different flours and breads were carried out. Analyses were made for different formulated bread and compared with the recommended daily allowance (RDA). The crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre ,ash and energy of the composite bread loaves increased significantly (p < 0.05) from 10.21% to 23.92%, 1.72% to 1.92%, 1.59% to 2.57% ,0.88% to 2.69% and 275.4kcal to 276.45kcal, respectively ; while the moisture content and carbohydrate decreased with increased level of supplementation from 30.84% to 28.02%, and 54.76% to 40.89% respectively. There was also a decrease in bulk density and bread volume by 22.22% and 44.86% respectively, with progressive inclusion of the mushroom flour. The sensory analysis showed that there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in texture, taste, flavour and overall acceptability up to 12.5% substitution with mushroom flour. In this study, it was attempted to optimize the ingredient formulation and processing parameters of MF incorporated bread such as nutrient and sensory score responses. D – Optimal design was used which consists of WWF and MF, with 13 formulations for the nutrient and sensory score of the MF incorporated bread. The result showed that the optimized acceptability of the MF incorporated bread containing WWF 80.86%, MF 19.14%, protein 34g, energy 455.78kcal and overall acceptability of 6.2 was suitable for children between the age groups of 1-5 years being not lower than the recommended dietary allowance for this group of children . It was concluded that a substitution of 12.5% mushroom flour into wheat flour gave the bread with the best overall quality indices. Therefore Mixture Design was used to investigate the effects of Whole Wheat Flour (WWF) and Oyster Mushroom flour (MF)) on the bread. Keywords: Bread, characterization, mixture design, mushroom, optimization, protein, wheat.



Bread, Characterization, Mixture design, Mushroom, Optimization, protein, wheat