Feasibility Study of Off-Grid Hybrid Systems: Mini-Hydro, PV, and Wind Power Systems for Rural Electrification in Ethiopia (Study Area: Mojana Wodera District, North Shewa, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

No Thumbnail Available



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Addis Ababa University


Ethiopia is a country of about 85 million people. About 85%of its people are living in rural remote areas. Those rural areas are either inaccessible to the central grid system or not covered by grid extension to date. About 2% of these areas are accessible to electricity. Among those areas is Mojana Wedera District in Amhara Regional State; North Shoa zone. The study area in this district is called Asofe and Filagenet villages. The run-off river Ajana (Mugil Wahsha), which is the focus of this feasibility study, runs through these villages. The study site‟s location is 9°53'17.62"N and 30° 34'11.41"E. The people in these villages live both is highland and semi lowland with the attitude ranging from 2,860 to 2,400m. Ajana River is a tributary of Jema river and Jema is in turn one of the main water feeders to Blue Nile. In Asofe and Filagenet, about 4,434 people live. The two villages have 739 households, two 1st to 8th grade schools having about 1000 students with 20 teachers in each school, five flour mills (assumed), two milk processors (assumed), two health posts and five churches. Though this area is rich in economically harnessable renewable energy sources, the people are not benefited from these resources. Among those resources which are not yet exploited are: Small-hydro, Wind and Solar. Without electricity, modern life is unthinkable to these societies. This feasibility study focuses on hybrid off-grid renewable potentials of Small-Hydropower, Wind and Solar Photovoltaic (PV) with battery backup and Diesel generator to supply the community with continuous electricity for twenty four hours. HOMER software is used for simulation, optimization and sensitivity analysis of the hybrid system. Given all the necessary inputs to the software, the results showed a list of feasible hybrid electric supply systems sorted out in accordance to their total present cost (NPC) in ascending order. Cost of energy (COE in $/kW), penetration level into the renewable resources (renewable fraction), the amount of Diesel oil used by the generator per year and the generator‟s working hour per year are also shown in the result list. In addition, a sensibility analysis is carried out for the major sensitivity components of the hybrid system. The major sensitivity components of the system recognized are the changing price of solar panel and wind turbine against increasing Diesel oil price. From the sensitivity result, solar ii energy is not promising in the study area. But, wind turbine is the most promising resource and can easily be utilized. Using the same software, the optimal costs of the hybrid system result is compared with the cost of grid extension to these villages are computed. The electricity, produced from this hybrid system will replace the conventional energy sources like wood, animal dung and kerosene. Besides, it brings work and technology opportunities linked to the electrical availability which transforms peoples‟ life style and gives its contribution to the development of the country. Keywords: Small Hydropower Potential; Wind Energy Potential; Solar Energy Potential; Hybrid; Primary Load; Deferrable Load; Un-gauged Run-Off River, Net Present Cost(NPC).



Small Hydropower Potential, Wind Energy Potential, Solar Energy Potential, Hybrid, Primary Load, Deferrable Load, Un-gauged Run-Off River, Net Present Cost(NPC)