Analysis and Optimization of Passenger Waiting Time: In Case Anbessa City Bus

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Addis Ababa University


In public transportation providing the fast transport service is the main concern to satisfy the passenger demand. The bus service accessibility in response to the passenger demand is deferent from route to route. This deference resulted in short passengers waiting time for high frequency and long passengers waiting time for the route of low bus service frequency. The long passengers waiting time is one of the measure of poor public transit service quality. In this thesis mathematical modeling was developed based on the dynamic passengers demand and bus service operational constraint to optimize passengers waiting time at bus terminals of Addis Ababa city in case of Anbessa bus transport using the data collected during literature review, interview, field study and secondary data collected from ACBSE. Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programing MINLP and Mixed Integer Linear Programing MILP model were developed for static and dynamic passenger demand. The dynamic passenger demand was solved as Mixed Integer Linear Programing MILP model by discretizing the bus planning horizon into small time (in minutes) to linearize and make the model tractable to solve it using software. LINGO software was used to solve the model. The result was evaluated with bus headway, bus frequency and bus capacity. The evaluation shows that the overall average bus departure time reduction is 39.62% and 37.74% for DAF or rigid Bishoftu bus and articulated bus respectively. The improved average frequency for DAF or rigid and articulate bus is 62.44% and 60.67% of actual bus frequency. The total average passengers waiting time for the DAF and Bishoftu bus was 8.03% more than the passengers waiting time for articulated bus. The overall average passengers waiting time reduction is 39.62% and 37.74% for DAF or rigid Bishoftu bus and articulated bus respectively, through the proposed mathematical optimization models.



Bus, Passengers Waiting Time, Passengers’ Arrival Rate, Bus Frequency, Bus Headway