Shape Based Customized Node Deployment Approach Using Wireless Sensor Networks

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Addis Ababa University


Wireless sensor networks consist of many nodes with capability of sensing, computation, and wireless communications. The use of wireless sensor networks has become an essential technology in many application domains including precision agriculture. Node deployment is a key issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). An appropriate node deployment scheme can increase coverage, connectivity and network lifetime of a WSN. In this thesis, we developed an approach to address the challenges associated to node deployment in WSNs. The proposed approach enables to handle different shapes of a monitored region for achieving an optimal deployment scheme. In here, the nodes will be deployed over a network in a deterministic fashion in which the position of sensor nodes is known before deployment. These nodes are arranged regularly using triangular grid node deployment strategy over the given shape of monitored region either regular or irregular. This approach computes the minimum number of nodes needed to construct a sensor network and determine the position of sensor nodes using spatial coordinates with corresponding node deployment scheme and network topology. This approach uses real world deployment scenarios (i.e., taking the real shape of the monitored region of farmland) and determines the position of sensor nodes using spatial coordinates and this makes it more practical than others. This approach has to meet various requirements, such as coverage area, network lifetime, cost and ease of deployment, number of nodes and adaptability. The implementation and the performance evaluation of the proposed node deployment are made with MATLAB. Moreover, we compared hierarchical routing algorithms called PEGASIS and LEACH to evaluate the network lifetime of the proposed scheme since node deployment scheme has an effect on routing. The results obtained by the implementation and evaluation are measured in comparison with other previously proposed node deployment strategies using mathematical modeling, theoretical analysis and formula deduction. The results show that the proposed approach can achieve full coverage with the minimum number of sensor nodes for the given shape of farmland. Hence, it is applicable to practical environments such as irregularly shaped farmland. We also show that the node deployment have been affected by the shape of the farmland. Thus, the required number of nodes and their positions can be adjusted adaptively to different shape of farmland. Keywords: Node Deployment, Coverage, Deployment Scheme, Precision Agriculture, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), Sensor node, Network Lifetime



Node Deployment; Coverage, Deployment Scheme; Precision Agriculture; Wireless Sensor Networks (Wsns); Sensor Node; Network Lifetime