Socio-economic Factors behind HIV Prevalence and Risky Sexual Behaviors in Ethiopia

No Thumbnail Available



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Addis Ababa University


This study analyzes the socioeconomic factors behind HIV prevalence and risky sexual behaviors using the 2000 and 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys. The study also examines changes in risky sexual behaviors occurred between the two surveys. Econometric models used in the study include Heckman Probit model for HIV prevalence, Proportional Hazard model for age at first intercourse, and Probit model for condom use and number of sexual partners. According to the results of Heckman Probit model, Women who attend higher education are at lower risk of HIV infection, whereas those who attend primary education are at higher risk. However, education appears to have insignificant effect for men’s HIV infection. On the other hand, wealth has a protective effect against HIV for men, whereas women of highest wealth quintile are at higher risk of HIV infection. Marriage for women and urban residence for both sexes consistently predicts higher HIV prevalence. With regard to the effect of education and wealth on risky sexual behaviors, both factors are associated with lower risky behaviors and the protective effects of these factors are more apparent in 2005 data. The exception to this fact is that education increases hazard rate of early sexual initiation for males in both survey data. Marriage and urban residence significantly increase risky behaviors, with exceptions that marriage reduces multiple partnerships and urban residence increases the probability of condom use. Changes in sexual behaviors are more pronounced among men than women. Compared to the earlier survey (2000), men have experienced later age at first sex, lower probability of multiple partners and higher probability of condom use in the later survey (2005). With exception of lower probability of multiple partners, women, however, exhibited earlier sexual initiation in 2005 than in 2000. Hence, the study assures that there are still opportunities to reduce HIV prevalence by devising policies which promote behavioral changes among women and the poor and illiterate society.



Socioeconomic Factors behind HIV Prevalence