Challenges in achieving universal primary education in Borana Pastoral community

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Addis Ababa Universty


The purposes of this study was to eXamil!e the challenges in achieving UPE by 2015, and come up with strategies that should be designed to enhance enrollment of school age children of the pastoral community. In order to realize the study, descriptive survey research was employed. This study was conducted in the three purposefully selected woredas of Borana Zone. And the sample schools were selected through random sampling technique. The subjects of the study were 156 teachers, 28 school principals, 20 educational personnel and educated group of this pastoral community. The necessary information was obtained from these subjects through questionnaires, structured interview and document analysis. Moreover, educational statistics and annual abstracts of the OEB and ZED were used to obtain the necessary data. The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed using statistical tools like percentage, mean and grand mean values. The data from documentary analysis and the findings showed that the provision of primary education in Borana pastoral community has shown an improvement but not as its desired targets. The findings of the study further indicated socio-economic factors like high demand for children labor, lack of direct costs of schooling, nutrition problem, the pastoral way of life, poor educational background of parents, conflicts, large family size, lack of adequate budget and drought have been identified as major challenges. Furthermore, socio-cultural factors such as negligence of physically impaired children, irrelevance of curriculum, existence of backward traditional culture, shortage of role models of pastoral girls, early marriage and pregnancy, parents fear modern education change their culture, parents tend to favor the education of boys than girls, low value given to the girls' education and absence of socialization p rogram to the new comer students were considered as barriers. Moreover, school related factors like shortage of qualified teachers, shortage of female teachers as a role model, weak school management, long distance walk between home schools, absence of flexible school calendar, lack of adequate supervision services, shortage of syllabus and teaches' guides and lack of school facilities have been identified as major problems in enhancing enrollment of Borana pastoral school age children. Hence, it is concluded that, in most cases, the provision of primary education for Borana pastoral children was a function of socio-economic, socio-cultural and supply side factors. Depending on the results of findings, building new schools near to the community, expanding existing schools and ABE centers~ establishing mobile schools, expanding boarding schools, expanding existing feeding program, increase the number of female teachers, use of relevant curriculum, increase supervision services, allocate sufficient budget to the schools, avoiding any school related costs, establishing especial support program to the girls' education, mobilizing community awareness on the UPE goals, full fill school facilities, attracting more NGOs that work on education issues, implementing flexible school calendar and mobilizing community support were among sound strategies which have been identified by the respondents to increase the participation of school age children in these lowland pastoral community.•



Primary Eduction