Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles using Moringa Stenopetala Leaf Water Extract for Ciprofloxacin Delivery against Resistant Escherichia Coli

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Addis Ababa University


Antimicrobial resistance is a critical public health issue in the world which is now challenging the effectiveness of drugs and successful treatment of infectious disease as well as poverty eradication due to its significant financial burden. Urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomial infection which is mostly caused by Escherichia coli. Like other infectious disease, its management has become challenging due to antimicrobial resistance. To tackle this problem researchers develop various suitable alternatives including inorganic nanoparticles like zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) which are known for their antimicrobial activity, and use of these nanoparticles for the delivery of antibiotics to benefit from the synergetic effect against resistant microbials. Therefore, our study aimed to synthesize ZnONPs using water extracts of Moringa Stenopetala leaf which is an endemic plant to Ethiopia, north Kenya and east Somali. Nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric (DSC-TGA) analysis and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Then, nanoparticles were loaded with ciprofloxacin and characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, DLS and FTIR to confirm the effective loading of ciprofloxacin on nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were also evaluated for their drug delivery potential. The drug loading content and drug entrapment efficacy were 49.1% and 96.5 %, respectively. The drug loaded nanoparticles were also evaluated for their drug releasing behavior at four different pH conditions (1.2, 6.0, 6.8 and 7.4 to simulate gastric, E.coli infected urinary tract, intestine and blood pH values, respectively). The result revealed that the loaded ciprofloxacin were efficiently released from ZnONPs at the site of E.coli infected uroepithelium environment in a sustained manner but with instant release in acidic pH due to the higher solubility of the drug and the nanoparticle in acidic pH. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of ZnONPs and ciprofloxacin loaded NPs was evaluated and compared with ciprofloxacin alone by the disc diffusion method. Accordingly, the drug loaded ZnONPs showed promising result against ciprofloxacin resistant E.coli and significantly enhanced the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin against this pathogen compared with ciprofloxacin and the unloaded NPs.



Antimicrobial resistance; Drug delivery; Green synthesis; Moringa Stenopetala; Zinc oxide nanoparticles.