An Assessment on Viability of the Modalities for Provision of Primary Education to the Children of Pastoralists in Afar Region of Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


The purpose of the study was to assess the viability of the modalities to provision of primary education for the children of pastoralists in Afar National Regional State. It was assessed alongside the strategies and standards designed to promote education in pastoral areas of Ethiopia. To this end, the study examined the relevancy of Alternative Modalities, their implementations and effectiveness. Mixed methods research approach with concurrent embedded design was employed. Using stratified, purposeful, random and snowball-sampling techniques, a total of 58 learning centers, schools and offices were used as data sources. 291 individuals have been involved in the study. The data were collected using questionnaires, interview, focus group discussion and document analysis. Qualitative data were analyzed with comparative and content analysis techniques. Quantitative data were analyzed with mean, percentages, t-tests, One-Way Analysis of Variance, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The study unveiled mobility, child labor, drought, poverty, and funding problems were the main challenges to use the formal school system. Some of the existing strategies and input standards of alternative modalities were found wanting; due attention was not given for alternative modalities. Alternative Basic Education found to be successful to get enrolled the target areas’ children and maintained gender parity but could not retain those enrolled and maintain quality. The Region lacks implementation capacity to make the modalities effective. In short, the modalities were not found to be viable to promote quality education for all pastoral children. Suggestions were forwarded to improve some of the strategies and standards, to redesign the management structures, to develop strategies to secure competent teachers if Sustainable development goal four is needed to meet by 2030. Otherwise, the pastoral children will remain disadvantaged. Key words: alternative modality, relevant, viability, pastoralist, challenge, strategy, standard



Alternative Modality, Relevant, Viability, Pastoralist, Strategy, Standard