The Practice and Challenges in the Implementation of Inclusive Approach to Teaching: A Comparative Case Analysis of Selected Government and Non-government Primary Schools in Addis Ababa

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Addis Ababa University


The purpose of this research was to describe and analyze the practices and challenges in the im plementation of Inclusive Approach to Teaching: A Comparative Case Analysis of selected gov ernment and non-government primary schools in Addis Ababa City Administration. To this end qualitative case study design was employed, and a cross-case analysis was used to examin simi larities and differences. Moreover, the conceptual framework of Villa and Thousand’s six system level was used to analyze the best practices and the challenges faced in the selected schools. Both primary and secondary data were used in this research. The primary sources were primary school teachers and principals whereas the secondary sources include relevant policy documents, lesson plans and school reports. A total of 20 participants were used in this study. , principals and pri mary school teachers were selected from four primary schools by using purposive sampling tech nique. Semi-structured interview guide and observation were used to generate the necessary data. Moreover, constructivist theory and system theory were used as theoretical lenses in this research. The former was used to investigate what teachers did so as to actively engage the learners in the construction of meanings in the classroom teaching. The latter was used to analyze the overall practices in the implementation of inclusive education in the schools and the challenges thereof as interlinked in a holistic way. The collected data were analyzed qualitatively. Tick descriptions, member checking and triangulation were employed to avoid personal bias in the analysis. The findings disclosed that group discussion and demonstration, peer tutoring and guided participa tion, lecturing, oral and written question, sport, games and role play are teaching methods were employed by teachers. Meanwhile, the practice of implementing inclusive education in classroom teaching was hampered by lack of adequate professional trainings, school facilities, adequate additional adult support, and l collaboration among teachers, and due to e prevailing stereotypes against persons with disabilities. Based on the findings, it could be safely concluded that the im plementation of inclusive approach to teaching in those sample schools was found to be not effec tive. Hence, based on the major findings and the conclusion drawn, it is recommended that (1) Addis Ababa Education Bureau is advised to provide tailored short-term trainings for school teachers on the proper implementation of inclusive approach to teaching; (2) the schools in col laboration with diverse stakeholders are advised to avail adequate resources so as to address the challenges of scarcity of learning materials and facilities for the proper implementation of inclu sive approach to teaching; (3) the Ethiopian government needs to introduce and develop the concept of inclusive education into laws and policies of the country so that its execution can be understood by the school community and easily facilitated. Key Words: Inclusive approach to teaching, inclusive education, human rights



Inclusive approach to teaching,, inclusive education,, human rights