Landuse/Cover Dynamics and Selection of Suitable Site for Water Harvesting Structure: The Case of Ziquala Watershed, Wag Himra Zone

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Addis Ababa University


The study area Ziquala Watershed located at a distance of about 760 km from the capital Addis Ababa city covers an area of about 759 km' . It is one of the drought p;one areas in the country. It is found in drought prone areas of the Wag Himra Zone. The area is charocterized by scarcity of water even during the rainy seasons. Agriculture predominantly animal rearing is the main stay of the area. Water harvesting structures are extremely important to conserve precious natural resource like, soil and water, which is depleting day by day at on alarming rate. GIS offers a powerful tool for mapping potential sites for rainfall harvesting. Selection of suitable sites for artificial recharge and water harvesting structures needs a large volume of multidisciplinary data from various sources. Remote sensing is of immense use for natural resources mapping and generating necessary spatial database required as input for GIS analysis. The most affecting factors on mapping the poten tial sites: landuse, soil, geological formation, drainage density and slope respectively. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the landuse/cover change and select and mop suitable sites for different water harvesting structures tor Ziquala watershed. Landuse/cover was prepared using supervised classification of Landsat imageries of three different years. Post classification analysis was used to reveal the change in landuse/cover during the study periods. During 1988-1999 period more change occur on bareland decreasing by -32.63% and bush land/shrub land increasing by 28.53%. The water harvesting structures considered for this study area are check dam, farm pond, semi-circular bund and contour bund. Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) method was used to identify suitable sites for WHSs. Weight was given based on their relative importance for individual WHS. Check dam with 48.33% has higher coverage fallowed by contour bund, semi-circular bund and farm pond having 2.8%, 1% and 1% coverage respectively. The remote sensing and GIS technique proved to be effective for generating thematic layers, facilitating, analysing and derivation of database management and results. Key word: GIS, Landuse/cover change, MCE, Remote sensing, suitability, Water harvesting



GIS, Landuse/cover change, MCE, Remote sensing, suitability, Water harvesting