Population Status and Diurnal Activity Pattern of the Common Warthog (Pllaeoc/Loerus Ajneal/Lis) in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


Some ecological aspects of the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) were studied from FebrllUlY 2000 to December 2000 in the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP). Data were collected on the poplilation estimate, age and sex categOlY, and diurnal activity pattern of the species by dividing the study period into d,y and wet seasons. Data were analyzed using SPSS compllter software package and compared using one-way ANOVA (p=0.05) and t-test for independent sample of groups (p=0. 05). Both total and sample counts were used to estimate the population of warthogs in the study area. 576 animals were counted in the whole study area (536 in the dry season and 616 in the wet season). Dllring counting, each individual in a group was identified into its respective age and sex categories. The result of the study showed a great percentage (>50%) of yo ling animals in the populatioll. There is IIl1eqllal sex ratio in the population. Male to female ratio of the population shows 23.9 % more females than males. The relatively high percentage of yo ling individuals and breeding females shows that warthog population in the study area is increasing. The major activities of the species were feeding and lying down. The amoullt of hOllrs devoted to each activity by Group I (all adult male) and Group II (a female with her two hoglets) was not significantly different except feeding. The amount of time spent in feeding is related to feeding efficiency based on the size of their mouths and molars. Feeding activity was intensive and reached its peak in the early morning and late afternoon. Resting/lying dowlI increased in the middle of the day. The activity follows the general pattern of ungulates in the Bale Moulltains National Park, characterized by morning and evening activity with a period of rest in the middle of the day.