Evaluation of different adjuvant formulations of inactivated trivalent foot and mouth disease vaccine in cattle

No Thumbnail Available



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Addis Ababa University


Foot-and-mouth disease is globally one of the most economically important viral diseases of cloven-hoofed animals that can primarily controlled by vaccination. Selection of the effective adjuvants formulated simultaneously with the antigen in the vaccine is crucial in ensuring the quality of vaccine and the protective effect of the vaccine against FMD. Aluminum hydroxide gel and saponin (AS) is the most used adjuvant, with its shortcoming in short duration and poor immune response in FMD vaccine. Therefore, the present experimental study was undertaken to evaluate different formulation of adjuvants for inactivated trivalent FMD vaccine containing A, O and SAT 2 serotypes in cattle. Additionally, this study was also performed to demonstrate the effect of booster dose administration on immune response. The vaccines were prepared by mixing 10 % of aluminum hydroxide gel, 0.3 % of saponin with the virus suspension. Oil based was prepared with equal volume of virus suspension (50:50). Twenty-nine cattle were classified into five groups, with four experimental groups consisting of six cattle in each group (n=6) and the fifth group is a control group with five cattle (n=5). The experimental cattle were grouped as: AS, AS boosted, oil based and AS + oil. The sera sample were collected on day 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42, their immune response was measured using Solid Phase Competitive Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (SPCE). There was a significant difference in the immune response between the adjuvant groups (P<0.05, ANOVA). The results showed that, the antibody level in cattle vaccinated with AS were significantly lower than AS boosted group for serotype A, O and SAT 2, indicating that the need for booster dose. Whereas the antibody response in the AS + oil group was higher followed by oil alone, AS boosted and AS. It can be concluded that oil based and AS with oil induce better antibody response relative to others and they could replace the aluminum hydroxide gel and saponin for FMD vaccine production to control the disease. On different note, challenge test was not successful in this study indicating the need for further research on the virus infectivity.



adjuvant, Foot and Mouth Disease, immune response, serotype, vaccine