Design and Simulation of the Distributer and Nozzle of a Micro Hydro Pelton Turbine

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Addis Ababa University


Pelton turbine is a type of hydraulic turbine in which energy carried by water is converted into kinetic energy by providing nozzle at the end of the penstock. The performance of this turbine depends on the nozzle shape and the distributer. In this paper attempts were made to study the effect of different nozzle shapes, nozzle angle, distributer bend, split angle, spear shape and spear angle. CATIA V5 and Ansys Fluent software were used to design and analysis of the numerical simulation for all the models developed. For the design and simulation of nozzle and distributer, a jet diameter of 54.4mm, flow rate of 0.14m 3 /s and the total head of 50m were taken. And also the nozzle angle of (30-45) in degree and the spear angle of (20-25) in degrees were fed to Ansys and then it generates 82 samples. So, the effect of each angle in the range was analyzed. The value obtained from Ansys parameter correlation depicts that nozzle angle of 30 degree and spear angle of 20 degree gives maximum efficiency. And finally the variation of blocking distance on efficiency and performance of the intended result was critical, sample values in mm from (0-93) was evaluated and best performance was found at blocking distance of 80mm. And more over, as the flow rate varies seasonally or due to flow rate regulation, ranges of flow rate in m 3 /s from 0.1 up to 0.009 per single nozzle was considered for the baseline and optimal design. Results obtained from numerical simulation on contours of static pressure, contours of velocity magnitude, and velocity vectors were colored inside the fluid interior for all models. So the comparison and analysis made on the model is based on the color magnitude on the legend bar of velocity and pressure. The result showed that, increasing the pipe diameter of distributer results in the reduction of head loss. However, since the optimal diameter is 142 mm, further increment in pipe diameter increases the cost of pipe. The other critical and notable factor to mention from the study was the nozzle angle and nozzle efficiency. i.e. As the nozzle angle increases the nozzle efficiency decreases due to back flow at the exit of the nozzle. In the end, increasing pipe diameter of distributer decreases the hydraulic energy inside the nozzle. The performance of the nozzle at different flow rate and different closing distance were analyzed and efficiency of 96.8 % was achieved. Finally after the nozzle and distributer optimized separately, then by integrating both components i.e. distributer and nozzle and their simulation were analyzed and 96.5% efficiency was obtained.



micro-hydro Pelton turbine, distributer, nozzle, spear, CFD, optimization