Design ond Simulation of Fluidized Bed Gasifier to Improve the Quality of Synthesis Gas

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Addis Ababa University


Biomass has emerged as one of the promising candidates for the future, in the renewable energy area. Biomass has been a major source of fuel for human from the existence of mankind. Rapid urbanization and widespread use of fossil fuels in the industrial world has related it to the status of a minor source of energy. The innovation, however, started with increasing concerns over reducing carbon footprints and also due to strong causative connections between non-renewable fossil fuels and “global warming”. Alternative energy production through biomass gasification (a thermo-chemical process of converting biomass into the producer gas or syngas) produces combustible gases, such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane. These gases can be used for generation of direct heat, electricity, or liquid fuels through the Fischer Tropsch process. However, a major limitation of the overall process is the purity of the generated synthesis gas. The tars and particulates generated in the gasification process constitute a major impediment to the commercial use of this technology because they may condense on valves, fittings, and therefore, hinder the smooth running of an engine. This research was aimed at developing a gas characterization and better understanding of the effect of various parameters on the syngas composition, and the removal of tars and particulates in the synthesis gas generated from a bubbling fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The study is primarily design of the different components of the gasifier and supplemented by the mathematical modeling that explains various steps in terms of existing scientific principles. The study compares the experimental results sited from different literatures with the equilibrium model results and also identifies the optimum operating parameters and design criteria for better quality syngas production. Using the proposed model, the optimum compositions of carbon monoxide, methane and hydrogen with the respective values of the operating temperature, moisture content and equivalence ratio was obtained.



Mechanical Engineering