Irrigation and Socio-Economic Factors Related to Malaria Transmission in Ziway, Eastern Oromia Zone.

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Addis Ababa University


Ziway is one of the regions in central Ethiopia where unreliable rainfall frequently affects agricultural production. To deal with this problem the government of Ethiopia has initiated the introduction of small-scale irrigation schemes. However, without proper planning such schemes are known to worsen vector-borne disease endemicity. This necessitates health impact assessment of irrigation systems to prevent water related diseases. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of small-scale irrigation schemes on malaria transmission in irrigated areas around Ziway. Blood smear samples were examined at the end of the main rainy season and the dry season of 2005/2006. The socio-economic condition of the irrigated and non-irrigated farming communities was assessed by using interviews based on questionnaires with household heads and agricultural and health workers. Overall irrigated areas had significantly higher (19.2%) (p<0.05) malaria infection prevalence rate as compared to the non-irrigated study sites (16%). In irrigated areas all age categories in the dry season showed higher malaria infection prevalence as compared to the rainy season. However, the difference was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the age category greater than 15 years old. In irrigated areas, households producing by irrigation had larger farm size and higher income but with higher malaria infection prevalence, indicating higher risk of malaria transmission. In non-irrigated areas, households with larger farm size and higher income were with lower malaria infection prevalence, indicating some protection provided by the limited anti-malaria measures in the area. Households living in grass top houses were with higher malaria infection prevalence rate as compared to those living in corrugated iron sheet roofs. In order to see the association of individual parameters in malaria infection, analysis was done by using the logit model. Accordingly, farmers with irrigated farms had higher income and yet did not use malaria protection measures such as bed nets, drugs, etc. Therefore, control interventions through integrated malaria control approaches that include education about its importance, source reduction and combined effort by agricultural and health workers during establishment of small-scale irrigation schemes are recommended. Key words: Agriculture, Anopheles pharoensis, Ethiopia, Irrigation, Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Socio-economy, Ziway



Agriculture, Anopheles pharoensis, Ethiopia, Irrigation, Malaria,, Plasmodium, falciparum, P. vivax, Socio-economy, Ziway.