Implementation Practices of Non-Formal Basic Primary Education Programs In Selected Centers of Addis Ababa, Oromia And Snnpr

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Addis Ababauniversity


Basic education is a foundation of all the development endeavors and a fundamental right of every member of a society. Providing basic education for all children-the principal assets and future bases of a country-is the wisest investment. Cognizant of this fact, Ethiopia is committed to expand basic education through formal as well as nonformal provisions. The formal system has for long been thought of as a panacea for all ills. Tinkering and repairing here and there with it, nonetheless, could not solve the persistent problems related to access, quality, equity, and efficiency. The NFBPE program has, thus, become part of the educational planning and implementation in different regions of the country. This study was targeted to investigate its implementation practices at nine centers of Addis Ababa, Oromia and SNNPR. To this end, a questionnaire, focus group discussion and interview guide questions, and observation checklists were used to gather data from different level stakeholders. The data were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed and discussed. The results disclosed that the implementation practices of the NFBPE programs had satisfactorily fulfilled the learning needs of those who enrolled and the demands of their parents in terms of enabling the learners get basic learning contents. Particularly, NGO-implemented programs were cost-effective and flexible to respond to the economic, social and cultural demands of the learners and parents. Recruiting facilitators by and from the community and assigning them to teach there also developed confidence of parents to send to and keep their children in the centers. These were among the facilitating factors and consequently, the best implementation practices of the NFBPE program that have been recommended for the comparable formal education implementation practices. The coverage of the NFBPE program being implemented, however, was very low. It did not reach all those who, for various reasons, could not attend formal schools. Similarly, the available linkages between the formal and the non-formal basic primary education program implementations were inconsistent to facilitate smooth promotion/ xii transference of learners from one to the other. This was due to stringent requirements of the formal schools and lack of clear-cut implementation guidelines that ensure mutual understandings of all concerned stakeholders. Less flexible schedules and no-or low-salary and trainings for facilitators, and shortage of curricula materials, severely at government-implemented NFBPE programs substantially inhibited the implementation practices of the Program. Therefore, it is recommended that government should issue and sensitize clear and specific NFBPE implementation guidelines that can be instrumental for expanding coverage, enhancing smooth transference of learners, developing local and program-specific curricula materials, and utilizing NGO initiatives to implement NFBPE programs



Basic Primary Education Programs