Evaluation of Various Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (Manets

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Addis Ababa University


Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET), which is a concept of mobile communication without a fixed communication infrastructure, is one of the current emerging technologies gaining much attention from both researchers and users. Because there is no as such a fixed responsible device router, each computing node is to act as a router and should be willing to forward other’s packets. Routing in mobile computing is a difficult task as we have a very dynamic network topology. Another problem is, the nodes in ad-hoc network are usually laptops and personal digital assistants and are often very limited in resources such as CPU capacity, storage capacity, battery power and bandwidth. This means, any routing protocol running on a mobile node should try to minimize routing or control packets and also be reactive. A research work group established by IETF, has set a number of requirements to be met by an ad-hoc routing protocol. According to these requirements, a number of routing protocols have been proposed broadly into two main categories, proactive and reactive. In this thesis, a detailed discussion of routing protocols from both proactive and reactive group is presented followed by simulation work using a discrete event Network Simulator called NS-2. Because these groups of routing protocols fail to satisfy all the requirements of MANET under all conditions such as high mobility, big network size and large number of traffic sources, a new scheme of hybrid routing protocol is proposed. This new routing protocol, called ZRP, is to x take advantages from both proactive and reactive group of protocols. It alleviates scalability problem of other routing protocols by classifying the network into manageable sizes called zones. ZRP combines two different routing schemes in one protocol. IntrAzone routing uses a proactive protocol to maintain up-to-date routing information to all nodes within its routing zone. By contrast intErzone route discovery is based on a reactive route request and reply scheme. Simulation results of this thesis work shows that ZRP performs well under all conditions especially when we have large network size.