Groundwater potential and Recharge zone mapping by using GIS and Remote sensing Techniques in the case of Middle Awash River Basins, Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa Universty


Groundwater is a valuable and important natural resource in the world and it is the most fundamental for the growth and development of one country. However estimating the potential of groundwater potential and its recharge zone has still uncertainty due to the nature of groundwater. Therefore, this study aims to use the timely and cost effective remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) methods for delineating, classify groundwater potential, and recharge zone in the Middle Awash River basin. Nine factors as a thematic map derived from Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) Satellite image of the year 2016, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) with 30 m and 1km spatial resolution and secondary sources were utilized in this research. These were rainfall, slope, geomorphology, geology, lineament density, drainage density, surface runoff, and Land-use/land-cover and soil texture. The methods to assess the potential and recharge zone was using weight overlay analysis and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) algorithm. All thematic layers were reclassified based knowledge based analysis that was reviewed from different kinds of literature. Then the weight for each factor was assigned according to their relative importance as per suitable based on Saatty's scale of AHP. The important factors result show that rainfall and slope have a higher weight and lithology has the lowest weight for identifying the potential of groundwater potential and recharge zone in the study area respectively. The resulting map of groundwater potential and recharge shows that 34 % and 32% of the area has very high potential, respectively. The produced map of groundwater recharge zone reveals that the northwestern and southeastern highlands of the study area are the most suitable areas. The result also exhibits very high groundwater potential areas have a very low slope, alluvial plains, with high lineament density and sandy loam soil textures. On the other hand, very low groundwater potential corresponding to barrier landforms, structural hills, and high slope areas. High recharge areas characterized by high rainfall, dense forest, and high drainage density. This result of groundwater potential and recharge was validated and shows 0.88 correlations of high and very high areas with that of existing water source and spring data. Therefore, this research demonstrates a robust method of using GIS and remote sensing techniques, which is efficient and useful in delineating and mapping groundwater potential and recharge zone. Keywords: Groundwater potential, Groundwater Recharge, GIS, Remote Sensing, AHP



Groundwater potential, Groundwater Recharge, GIS, Remote Sensing, AHP